Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 11 of 11
Technical Paper

A Study of Age-Related Thoracic Injury in Frontal Crashes using Analytic Morphomics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0549
The purpose of this study was to use detailed medical information to evaluate thoracic injuries in elderly patients in real world frontal crashes. In this study, we used analytic morphomics to predict the effect of torso geometry on rib fracture, a major source of injury for the elderly. Analytic morphomics extracts body features from computed tomography (CT) scans of patients in a semi-automated fashion. Thoracic injuries were examined in front row occupants involved in frontal crashes from the International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database. Among these occupants, two age groups (age < 60 yr. [Nonelderly] and age ≥ 60 yr. [Elderly]) who suffered severe thoracic injury were analyzed. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate injury outcomes using variables for vehicle, demographics, and morphomics. Compared to the nonelderly group, the elderly group sustained more rib fractures.
Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Crash Analysis and Countermeasures to Improve Occupant Safety

2015-09-29
2015-01-2868
This paper examines truck driver injury and loss of life in truck crashes related to cab crashworthiness. The paper provides analysis of truck driver fatality and injury in crashes to provide a better understanding of how injury occurs and industry initiatives focused on reducing the number of truck occupant fatalities and the severity of injuries. The commercial vehicle focus is on truck-tractors and single unit trucks in the Class 7 and 8 weight range. The analysis used UMTRI's Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey file and NHTSA's General Estimates System (GES) file for categorical analysis and the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) for a supplemental clinical review of cab performance in frontal and rollover crash types. The paper includes analysis of crashes producing truck driver fatalities or injuries, a review of regulatory development and industry safety initiatives including barriers to implementation.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Effects of Muscle Activation on Knee, Thigh, and Hip Injuries in Frontal Crashes Using a Finite-Element Model with Muscle Forces from Subject Testing and Musculoskeletal Modeling

2009-11-02
2009-22-0011
In a previous study, the authors reported on the development of a finite-element model of the midsize male pelvis and lower extremities with lower-extremity musculature that was validated using PMHS knee-impact response data. Knee-impact simulations with this model were performed using forces from four muscles in the lower extremities associated with two-foot bracing reported in the literature to provide preliminary estimates of the effects of lower-extremity muscle activation on knee-thigh-hip injury potential in frontal impacts. The current study addresses a major limitation of these preliminary simulations by using the AnyBody three-dimensional musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle forces produced in 35 muscles in each lower extremity during emergency one-foot braking.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model to Study the Effects of Muscle Forces on Knee-Thigh-Hip Injuries in Frontal Crashes

2008-11-03
2008-22-0018
A finite element (FE) model with knee-thigh-hip (KTH) and lower-extremity muscles has been developed to study the potential effects of muscle tension on KTH injuries due to knee bolster loadings in frontal crashes. This model was created by remeshing the MADYMO human lower-extremity FE model to account for regional differences in cortical bone thickness, trabecular bone, cortical bone with directionally dependent mechanical properties and Tsai-Wu failure criteria, and articular cartilage. The model includes 35 Hill-type muscles in each lower extremity with masses based on muscle volume. The skeletal response of the model was validated by simulating biomechanical tests without muscle tension, including cadaver skeletal segment impact tests documented in the literature as well as recent tests of seated whole cadavers that were impacted using knee-loading conditions similar to those produced in FMVSS 208 testing.
Technical Paper

Worst Case Scenarios Generation and Its Application on Driving

2007-08-05
2007-01-3585
The current test methods are insufficient to evaluate and ensure the safety and reliability of vehicle system for all possible dynamic situations including the worst cases such as rollover, spin-out and so on. Although the known NHTSA J-turn and Fish-hook steering maneuvers are applied for the vehicle performance assessment, they are not enough to predict other possible worst case scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to search for the various worst cases including the existing severe steering maneuvers. This paper includes the procedure to search for other useful worst case based upon the existing worst case scenarios in terms of rollover and its application in simulation basis. The human steering angle is selected as a design variable and optimized to maximize the index function to be expressed in terms of vehicle roll angle. The obtained scenarios were enough to generate the worse cases than NHTSA ones.
Technical Paper

Software Integration for Simulation-Based Analysis and Robust Design Automation of HMMWV Rollover Behavior

2007-04-16
2007-01-0140
A multi-body dynamics model of the U.S. Army3s High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) has been created using commercial software (ADAMS) to simulate and analyze the vehicle3s rollover behavior. However, manual operation of such simulation and analysis for design purposes is prohibitively expensive and time consuming, limiting the engineers3 ability to utilize the model fully and extract from it useful design information in a timely, cost-effective manner. To address this challenge, a commercial system integration and optimization software (OPTIMUS) is utilized in order to automate the simulation processes and to enable the more complex uncertainty-based analysis of the HMMWV rollover behavior under a variety of external conditions. Challenges involved in integrating the software are highlighted and remedies are discussed. Rollover analysis results from using the integrated model and automated simulation are also presented.
Technical Paper

Intrusion in Side Impact Crashes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0678
Half of the car occupant deaths involved in two-vehicle crashes results from side impact collisions. In an attempt to better understand the role that vehicle mass plays in crashes and injury causation, detailed information from the NASS CDS database on injury source was distributed in three classes: contact with intrusion, contact without intrusion, and restrained acceleration or non-contact. We compared these distributions for belted drivers in side verses frontal crashes. When looking at the type of striking, or bullet, vehicle in near-side impacts, we found that intrusion injuries are more prevalent in cars hit by SUVs and pickups than by other cars. We also looked at the body region injured verses the type of striking vehicle and found head injuries to be slightly more prevalent when the striking vehicle is an SUV or pick-up. Data from the University of Michigan CIREN case studies on side impacts are presented and are consistent with the NASS CDS data.
Technical Paper

Rollover Propensity Evaluation of an SUV Equipped with a TRW VSC System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0128
In this paper, a simulation-based dynamic rollover evaluation procedure is described. This work is based on the worst-case methodology developed at the University of Michigan, and is the result of a collaborated research project between the University of Michigan and TRW Inc. The target vehicle studied in this paper is a large production volume SUV. This vehicle is equipped with a production-intent TRW Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) system. The main goals of this paper are to (i) study the rollover propensity of this SUV, as influenced by vehicle and environment parameters such as vehicle speed, road condition, etc.; and (ii) investigate whether, and by how much, does the VSC system influence the rollover propensity of this SUV. The modeling, evaluation procedure, and preliminary evaluation results are reported.
Technical Paper

Offset Frontal Collisions: A Review of the Literature and Analysis of UMTRI and NASS Crash Injury Data - CDC, AIS and Body Area Injuries

1995-02-01
950498
Using the CDC (SAE J224), a comparison of the NASS data and the UMTRI field accident files (UM series) indicates a similar distribution of offset frontal crashes. Offset frontal damage occurs in 56-61% of crashes, often involving more than one third of the front of the car. Lap-shoulder belted drivers sustain more AIS 2 or greater injuries when there is interior intrusion and occur more often when the offset damage is in front of the driver. However, this may well be due to the severity of the crash. European studies have no uniformity as to offset frontal collision descriptors are difficult to interpret, or to compare one to another.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Passenger Car Side Impacts - Crash Location, Injuries, AIS and Contacts

1992-02-01
920353
NASS 80-88 passenger side impacts data were analyzed. Location of primary car damage using the CDC classification, the AIS for injury severity studies, and the interior contacts of the various body areas. Drivers alone, or with passengers were studied separately in both left and right side crashes. Direct impacts to the passenger compartment only are less frequent than to other CDC side zones. Driver interior contacts vary by body region but also by side impacted in the crash. The presence of an unrestrained front passenger appears to enhance driver injury level in left side crashes but the presence of a passenger, in right side crashes appears to moderate driver injury severity.
Technical Paper

Severe to Fatal Injuries to Lap-Shoulder Belted Car Occupants

1977-02-01
770149
Lap-shoulder belt effectiveness has been indicated by many authors, however there is minimal information on the more severe injuries to lap-shoulder belted car occupants. This paper presents details of 15 lap-shoulder belted occupants in frontal collisions and 24 lap-shoulder belted occupants in side impact collisions. Case descriptions of these crashes are presented, each including vehicle, environmental and injury details.
X