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Technical Paper

Survey of Automotive Privacy Regulations and Privacy-Related Attacks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0479
Privacy has been a rising concern. The European Union has established a privacy standard called General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in May 2018. Furthermore, the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data incident made headlines in March 2018. Data collection from vehicles by OEM platforms is increasingly popular and may offer OEMs new business models but it comes with the risk of privacy leakages. Vehicular sensor data shared with third-parties can lead to misuse of the requested data for other purposes than stated/intended. There exists a relevant regulation document introduced by the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (“Auto Alliance”), which classifies the vehicular sensors used for data collection as covered and non-sensitive parameters.
Technical Paper

Installed Positions of Child Restraint Systems in Vehicle Second Rows

2015-04-14
2015-01-1452
This study documented the position and orientation of child restraint systems (CRS) installed in the second rows of vehicles, creating a database of 486 installations. Thirty-one different CRS were evaluated, selected to provide a range of manufacturers, sizes, types, and weight limits. Eleven CRS were rear-facing only, fourteen were convertibles, five were combination restraints, and one was a booster. Ten top-selling vehicles were selected to provide a range of manufacturers and body styles: four sedans, four SUVS, one minivan, and one wagon. CRS were marked with three reference points on each moving component. The contours and landmarks of each CRS were first measured in the laboratory. Vehicle interior contours, belt anchors, and LATCH anchors were measured using a similar process. Then each CRS was installed in a vehicle using LATCH according to manufacturers' directions, and the reference points of each CRS component were measured to document the installed orientation.
Technical Paper

Variance Reduction Techniques for Reliability Estimation Using CAE Models

2003-03-03
2003-01-0150
Traditional reliability assessment methods based on physical testing can require prohibitively large sample sizes in many applications. This has led manufacturers to employ virtual testing using CAE models in place of physical testing. However, when the CAE models are not valid, the resulting reliability assessment may be unreliable. In this paper we develop theory and methodology in which traditional physical testing can be used in conjunction with CAE models to create a new type of accelerated testing that requires smaller sample sizes than traditional test plans while exhibiting robustness with respect to inaccuracies in the CAE models. These test plans are implemented by physically testing a biased sample of products and employing a variance reduction technique such as importance sampling. The CAE model is used as a prior belief for failure probability from which one can derive the sampling plan which minimizes the variance.
Technical Paper

LCI Modeling Challenges and Solutions for a Complex Product System: A Mid-Sized Automobile

1998-11-30
982169
While the results are generally the most exciting aspects of an LCI study, the details of the LCI model that generates the results are equally significant; particularly when modeling the life cycle of an automobile. The modeling challenges faced in conducting the US AMP LCI of a mid-sized vehicle based on the 1995 Lumina, Intrepid and Taurus are highlighted. The number of parts (over 20,000), supply chain complexity, materials composition, and the demanding set of OEM requirements for model features required special LCI methods and solutions. The LCI model and selected results are compared with previous studies, and recommendations for improvements in the USAMP LCI model are also provided. This paper is one of six SAE publications discussing the results and execution of the USCAR AMP Generic Vehicle LCI. The papers in this series are (Overview of results 982160, 982161, 982162, 982168, 982169, 982170).
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy and Power Benefits of Cetane-Improved Fuels in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

1997-10-01
972900
A program to explore the effects of natural and additive-derived cetane on various aspects of diesel performance and combustion has been carried out. Procedures have been developed to measure diesel engine fuel consumption and power to a high degree of precision. These methods have been used to measure fuel consumption and power in three heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engines. The fuel matrix consisted of three commercial fuels of cetane number (CN) of 40-42, the same fuels raised to CN 48-50 with a cetane improver additive, and three commercial fuels of base CN 47-50. The engines came from three different U.S. manufacturers and were of three different model years and emissions configurations. Both fuel economy and power were found to be significantly higher for the cetane-improved fuels than for the naturally high cetane fuels. These performance advantages derive mainly from the higher volumetric heat content inherent to the cetane-improved fuels.
Technical Paper

Critical Issues in Development of Open Architecture Controllers

1996-05-01
961655
Open-Architecture Control Systems allow easy integration of control system that their elements supplied by multiple vendors. The driver behind open architecture is obtaining enhanced system performance at affordable cost. The University of Michigan started a project on open-architecture in 1988. This paper offers a short description of the project, and summarizes the impact of this new technology on the equipment supplier industry (control vendors and machine builders) and the end users of this technology.
Technical Paper

Automotive Demand, Markets, and Material Selection Processes

1994-03-01
940701
Cost reduction, quality improvement, and regulatory compliance are well-recognized competitive issues. Companies must excel along each of these fronts while operating in an environment of rapid and multi-faceted change, limited financial and human capital, and increasing product development time pressure. In addition, consumers are demanding automobiles that provide greater performance, function, and comfort while emitting lower emissions, consuming fewer gallons of gasoline, injuring fewer humans, and requiring fewer dollars to build and purchase. A solution to these seemingly conflicting objectives is to take a systems view of the product and industry. This paper explores the material decision process so that manufacturers, component suppliers, and material providers may better understand the interlocking web of compromises that shape the pursuit of value-added alternatives and avoidance of unprofitable compromises.
Technical Paper

A Network-Based Expert System for Comparative Analysis of Pulley Assembly Methods

1990-02-01
900818
The pulleys employed in automotive accessory drive systems very often consist of a two piece assembly; a multitude of fastening techniques are used in completing the assembly. There are numerous assembly methods and a variety of distinct pulley configurations dictated by the various automobile manufacturers in accordance with individual accessory drive needs. An expert system is being developed to evaluate the merit of multiple assembly alternatives for a specific pulley application. The expert system provides a consistent evaluation tool for assembly alternatives, balancing the influence of product cost, strength and quality considerations. The knowledge-based system is implemented in an expert system shell called AGNESS (A Generalized Network-based Expert System Shell). The expert system judges the acceptability of various pulley assembly techniques, assigning a high “merit value” to the better designs and proportionately lower values to less desirable designs.
Technical Paper

Some Observations on the International Coalition Strategies in the Development of Chinese Automobile Industry

1989-11-01
891235
Since the end of W.W.II, many countries have embarked on various to develop a national automobile industry to spur the economic growth of the country, to meet the rising domestic demand for automobiles, and to compete in the world markets. Can these countries achieve these objectives and at the same time retain their national independence in the automobile industry from the domination of the foreign multinational automobile manufacturers? This paper addresses these questions by examining first, the records of Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico), South Korea and Taiwan in Asia Pacific Region; it then attempts to determine to what extent their experiences may be transferrable to the Chinese automobile industry which is currently undergoing modernization. For the purpose of this paper, the automobile industry encompasses only passenger vehicles.
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