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Technical Paper

Transmission Shift Strategies for Electrically Supercharged Engines

This work investigates the potential improvements in vehicle fuel economy possible by optimizing gear shift strategies to leverage a novel boosting device, an electrically assisted variable speed supercharger (EAVS), also referred to as a power split supercharger (PSS). Realistic gear shift strategies, resembling those commercially available, have been implemented to control upshift and downshift points based on torque request and engine speed. Using a baseline strategy from a turbocharged application of a MY2015 Ford Escape, a vehicle gas mileage of 34.4 mpg was achieved for the FTP75 drive cycle before considering the best efficiency regions of the supercharged engine.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Velocity Prediction and Energy Management Strategy Part 1: Deterministic and Stochastic Vehicle Velocity Prediction Using Machine Learning

There is a pressing need to develop accurate and robust approaches for predicting vehicle speed to enhance fuel economy/energy efficiency, drivability and safety of automotive vehicles. This paper details outcomes of research into various methods for the prediction of vehicle velocity. The focus is on short-term predictions over 1 to 10 second prediction horizon. Such short-term predictions can be integrated into a hybrid electric vehicle energy management strategy and have the potential to improve HEV energy efficiency. Several deterministic and stochastic models are considered in this paper for prediction of future vehicle velocity. Deterministic models include an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, a Nonlinear Auto-Regressive with eXternal input (NARX) shallow neural network and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep neural network. Stochastic models include a Markov Chain (MC) model and a Conditional Linear Gaussian (CLG) model.
Technical Paper

Voronoi Partitions for Assessing Fuel Consumption of Advanced Technology Engines: An Approximation of Full Vehicle Simulation on a Drive Cycle

This paper presents a simple method of using Voronoi partitions for estimating vehicle fuel economy from a limited set of engine operating conditions. While one of the overarching goals of engine research is to continually improve vehicle fuel economy, evaluating the impact of a change in engine operating efficiency on the resulting fuel economy is a non-trivial task and typically requires drive cycle simulations with experimental data or engine model predictions and a full suite of engine controllers over a wide range of engine speeds and loads. To avoid the cost of collecting such extensive data, proprietary methods exist to estimate fuel economy from a limited set of engine operating conditions. This study demonstrates the use of Voronoi partitions to cluster and quantize the fuel consumed along a complex trajectory in speed and load to generate fuel consumption estimates based on limited simulation or experimental results.
Technical Paper

Study of Effects of Thermal Insulation Techniques on a Catalytic Converter for Reducing Cold Start Emissions

Previous work done at the University of Michigan shows the capability of the vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC) to retain heat during soak and the resulting benefits in reducing cold start emissions. This paper provides an improved version of the design which overcomes some of the shortcomings of the previous model and further improves the applicability and benefits of VICC. Also, newer materials have been evaluated and their effects on heat retention and emissions have studied using the 1-D after treatment model. Cold start emissions constitute around 60% to 80% of all the hydrocarbon and CO emissions in present day vehicles. The time taken to achieve the catalyst light-off temperature in a three-way catalytic converter significantly affects the emissions and fuel efficiency. The current work aims at developing a method to retain heat in catalytic converter, thus avoiding the need for light-off and reducing cold start emissions effectively.
Journal Article

Assessing a Hybrid Supercharged Engine for Diluted Combustion Using a Dynamic Drive Cycle Simulation

This study uses full drive cycle simulation to compare the fuel consumption of a vehicle with a turbocharged (TC) engine to the same vehicle with an alternative boosting technology, namely, a hybrid supercharger, in which a planetary gear mechanism governs the power split to the supercharger between the crankshaft and a 48 V 5 kW electric motor. Conventional mechanically driven superchargers or electric superchargers have been proposed to improve the dynamic response of boosted engines, but their projected fuel efficiency benefit depends heavily on the engine transient response and driver/cycle aggressiveness. The fuel consumption benefits depend on the closed-loop engine responsiveness, the control tuning, and the torque reserve needed for each technology. To perform drive cycle analyses, a control strategy is designed that minimizes the boost reserve and employs high rates of combustion dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Events of Ethanol and Gasoline Blends on Boosted Direct-Injection Engine Performance

Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of ethanol in increasing the thermal efficiency of gasoline-fueled spark ignition engines via the higher enthalpy of vaporization and higher knock resistance of ethanol compared with gasoline. This study expands on previous work by considering a split fuel injection strategy with a boosted direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with E0 (100% by volume reference grade gasoline; with research octane number = 91 and motor octane number = 83), E100 (100% by volume anhydrous ethanol), and various splash-blends of the two fuels. Experiments were performed using a production 3-cylinder Ford Ecoboost engine where two cylinders were de-activated to create a single-cylinder engine with a displacement of 0.33 L. The engine was operated over a range of loads with boosted intake manifold absolute pressure (MAP) from 1 bar to 1.5 bar.
Technical Paper

Influence of HCCI and SACI Combustion Modes on NH3 Generation and Subsequent Storage across a TWC-SCR System

Advanced engine combustion strategies, such as HCCI and SACI, allow engines to achieve high levels of thermal efficiency with low levels of engine-out NOx emissions. To maximize gains in fuel efficiency, HCCI combustion is often run at lean operating conditions. However, lean engine operation prevents the conventional TWC after-treatment system from reaching legislated tailpipe emissions due to oxygen saturation. One potential solution for handling this challenge without the addition of costly NOx traps or on-board systems for urea injection is the passive TWC-SCR concept. This concept includes the integration of an SCR catalyst downstream of a TWC and the use of periods of rich or stoichiometric operation to generate NH3 over the TWC to be stored on the SCR catalyst until it is needed for NOx reduction during subsequent lean operation.
Journal Article

Control Strategies for Power Quantized Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid Powertrains: In Mobile Robot Applications

This paper addresses scheduling of quantized power levels (including part load operation and startup/shutdown periods) for a propane powered solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybridized with a lithium-ion battery for a tracked mobile robot. The military requires silent operation and long duration missions, which cannot be met by batteries alone due to low energy density or with combustion engines due to noise. To meet this need we consider an SOFC operated at a few discrete power levels where maximum system efficiency can be achieved. The fuel efficiency decreases during transients and resulting thermal gradients lead to stress and degradation of the stack; therefore switching power levels should be minimized. Excess generated energy is used to charge the battery, but when it’s fully charged the SOFC should be turned off to conserve fuel.
Journal Article

Powerpack Optimal Design Methodology with Embedded Configuration Benchmarking

Design of military vehicle needs to meet often conflicting requirements such as high mobility, excellent fuel efficiency and survivability, with acceptable cost. In order to reduce the development cost, time and associated risk, as many of the design questions as possible need to be addressed with advanced simulation tools. This paper describes a methodology to design a fuel efficient powerpack unit for a series hybrid electric military vehicle, with emphasis on the e-machine design. The proposed methodology builds on previously published Finite element based analysis to capture basic design features of the generator with three variables, and couples it with a model reduction technique to rapidly re-design the generator with desired fidelity. The generator is mated to an off the shelf engine to form a powerpack, which is subsequently evaluated over a representative military drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Series Hydraulic Hybrid System for a Passenger Car: Design, Integration and Packaging Study

This paper is on the development process of a hydraulic hybrid passenger vehicle. A subcompact passenger vehicle is chosen for modification into a series hydraulic hybrid with the aim of achieving a fuel economy of 100 MPG (2.35 L/100km) on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). This work develops a methodology for simultaneously designing a powertrain and power management strategy of a series hydraulic hybrid. The design process was initiated by developing a system level model validated using engine and hydraulic pump/motor testing by the US EPA at the National Vehicle and Fuel Efficiency Laboratory (NVFEL). Parametric studies were performed in order to determine the size of the pump/motors and accumulators. Several candidate engines were tested and the system models were used to determine which one could provide the best fuel economy while meeting performance constraints.
Journal Article

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain and Control Strategy Optimization to Maximize the Synergy with a Gasoline HCCI Engine

This simulation study explores the potential synergy between the HCCI engine system and three hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations, and proposes the supervisory control strategy that maximizes the benefits of combining these two technologies. HCCI operation significantly improves fuel efficiency at part load, while hybridization aims to reduce low load/low speed operation. Therefore, a key question arises: are the effects of these two technologies additive or overlapping? The HEV configurations include two parallel hybrids with varying degrees of electrification, e.g. with a 5kW integrated starter/motor (“Mild”) and with a 10 kW electric machine (“Medium”), and a power-split hybrid. The engine is a dual-mode, SI-HCCI system and the engine map reflects the impact of HCCI on brake specific fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicle Technologies That Improve Safety, Congestion, and Efficiency: Overview and Public Policy Role

At the forefront of intelligent vehicle technologies are vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V) and vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII). Their capabilities can be added to currently-available systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC), to drastically decrease the number and severity of collisions, to ease traffic flow, and to consequently improve fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness. There has been extensive government, industry, and academic involvement in developing these technologies. This paper explores the capabilities and challenges of vehicle-based technology and examines ways that policymakers can foster implementation at the federal, state, and local levels.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Residual Gas Fraction Measurement Techniques in a High Degree of Freedom Spark Ignition Engine

Stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations have driven development of new mixture preparation technologies and increased spark-ignition engine complexity. Additional degrees of freedom, brought about by devices such as cam phasers and charge motion control valves, enable greater range and flexibility in engine control. This permits significant gains in fuel efficiency and emission control, but creates challenges related to proper engine control and calibration techniques. Accurate experimental characterization of high degree of freedom engines is essential for addressing the controls challenge. In particular, this paper focuses on the evaluation of three experimental residual gas fraction measurement techniques for use in a spark ignition engine equipped with dual-independent variable camshaft phasing (VVT).
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Combustion Chamber Deposits on a Gasoline HCCI Engine

Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines offer a good potential for achieving high fuel efficiency while virtually eliminating NOx and soot emissions from the exhaust. However, realizing the full fuel economy potential at the vehicle level depends on the size of the HCCI operating range. The usable HCCI range is determined by the knock limit on the upper end and the misfire limit at the lower end. Previously proven high sensitivity of the HCCI process to thermal conditions leads to a hypothesis that combustion chamber deposits (CCD) could directly affect HCCI combustion, and that insight about this effect can be helpful in expanding the low-load limit. A combustion chamber conditioning process was carried out in a single-cylinder gasoline-fueled engine with exhaust re-breathing to study CCD formation rates and their effect on combustion. Burn rates accelerated significantly over the forty hours of running under typical HCCI operating conditions.
Technical Paper

In Search of Efficient Walking Robots

With the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, it is increasingly evident that the demands of warfare are changing and the need for innovative mobility systems is growing. In the rough, unstructured terrain that the soldiers encounter, they have reverted to using mules and donkeys to move stealthily and quickly. In light of the growing need for autonomous systems, the Army is looking at the possibility of legged mobility options such as gasoline powered quadrupeds to traverse the off-road terrain. As technology advances, the era of military bipeds may well be in sight. However, current bipedal robotic technology is far too inefficient for battlefield use. Much of this inefficiency stems from actuated control of each limb's motion throughout the entire gait cycle. An alternative approach is to exploit the passive pendular dynamics of legs and legged bodies for energy savings. This paper compares and contrasts fully-actuated walking with passive walking.
Technical Paper

A Dual-Use Enterprise Context for Vehicle Design and Technology Valuation

Developing a new technology requires decision-makers to understand the technology's implications on an organization's objectives, which depend on user needs targeted by the technology. If these needs are common between two organizations, collaboration could result in more efficient technology development. For hybrid truck design, both commercial manufacturers and the military have similar performance needs. As the new technology penetrates the truck market, the commercial enterprise must quantify how the hybrid's superior fuel efficiency will impact consumer purchasing and, thus, future enterprise profits. The Army is also interested in hybrid technology as it continues its transformation to a more fuel-efficient force. Despite having different objectives, maximizing profit and battlefield performance, respectively, the commercial enterprise and Army can take advantage of their mutual needs.
Technical Paper

Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines

This paper presents an overview of techniques for measuring friction using bench tests and fired engines. The test methods discussed have been developed to provide efficient, yet realistic, assessments of new component designs, materials, and lubricants for in-cylinder and overall engine applications. A Cameron-Plint Friction and Wear Tester was modified to permit ring-in-piston-groove movement by the test specimen, and used to evaluate a number of cylinder bore coatings for friction and wear performance. In a second study, it was used to evaluate the energy conserving characteristics of several engine lubricant formulations. Results were consistent with engine and vehicle testing, and were correlated with measured fuel economy performance. The Instantaneous IMEP Method for measuring in-cylinder frictional forces was extended to higher engine speeds and to modern, low-friction engine designs.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Vehicle Life Using Life Cycle Energy Analysis and Dynamic Replacement Modeling

A novel application in the field of Life Cycle Assessment is presented that investigates optimal vehicle retirement timing and design life. This study integrates Life Cycle Energy Analysis (LCEA) with Dynamic Replacement Modeling and quantifies the energy tradeoffs between operating an older vehicle versus replacing it with a new more energy efficient model. The decision to keep or replace a vehicle to minimizes life cycle energy consumption is influenced by several factors including vehicle production energy, current vehicle's fuel economy and its deterioration with age, the improvement in fuel economy technology of new model vehicles and annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Model simulations explore vehicle replacement under incremental improvements in vehicle technology and leapfrog technology improvements such as with the PNGV (Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles).
Technical Paper

Energy and Entropy in Airbag Deployment: The Effect on an Out-Of-Position Occupant

Deployment of an airbag or charging of a tank by an inflator-canister system is a highly dynamic process. Quantification of energy storage, energy flux, work done, flow rates, thermodynamic properties, and energy conservation are essential to describe the deployment process. The concepts of available work and entropy production are presented as useful parameters when evaluating airbag aggressivity from tank test results for different types of inflators. This paper presents a computational methodology to simulate a pyro- and a hybrid-inflator-canister-airbag system to predict the force pattern that could occur on an out-of-position occupant when the airbag deploys. Comparisons with experimental data have been made in all cases where data were available. These include driver-, passenger-, and side-airbag designs.
Technical Paper

An Electrorheologically Controlled Semi-Active Landing Gear

This study is to explore the application of electrorheology (ER) to the real-time control of damping forces that are transmitted through the nose landing gear for an F-106B aircraft. The main part of the landing gear is a strut that consists of a pneumatic spring and an ER controlled damper that is situated on the strut centerline and applies a force directly opposing the vertical displacement of the nose wheel. The damping element rotates in response to strut displacement, employing a co-axial arrangement of stator and rotor plates connected to the opposing electrodes in the control circuit. The vertical displacement is converted into rotation of the damper through a screw-nut mechanism. The ER fluid between the electrodes is thus engaged in shear along circumferential lines of action. This design results in a fast time response and a high ratio of strut forces achieved under ER- vs. zero-field control. Compact size and simplicity in fabrication are also attained.