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Technical Paper

Design of Experiments for Effects and Interactions during Brake Emissions Testing Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-09-15
2019-01-2139
The investigation and measurement of particle emissions from foundation brakes require the use of a special adaptation of inertia dynamometer test systems. To have proper measurements for particle mass and particle number, the sampling system needs to minimize transport losses and reduce residence times inside the brake enclosure. Existing models and spreadsheets estimate key transport losses (diffusion, turbophoretic, contractions, gravitational, bends, and sampling isokinetics). A significant limitation of such models is that they cannot assess the turbulent flow and associated particle dynamics inside the brake enclosure; which are anticipated to be important. This paper presents a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow within a dynamometer enclosure under relevant operating conditions. The systematic approach allows the quantification of turbulence intensity, mean velocity profiles, and residence times.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modelling of Primary and Secondary Effects of SLD Impingement

2019-06-10
2019-01-2002
A CFD simulation methodology for the inclusion of the post-impact trajectories of splashing/bouncing Supercooled Large Droplets (SLDs) and film detachment is introduced and validated. Several scenarios are tested to demonstrate how different parameters affect the simulations. Including re-injecting droplet flows due to splashing/bouncing and film detachment has a significant effect on the accuracy of the validations shown in the article. Validation results demonstrate very good agreement with the experimental data. This approach is then applied to a full-scale twin-engine turboprop to compute water impingement on the wings and the empennage.
Technical Paper

An Ice Shedding Model for Rotating Components

2019-06-10
2019-01-2003
A CFD simulation methodology is presented to evaluate the ice that sheds from rotating components. The shedding detection is handled by coupling the ice accretion and stress analysis solvers to periodically check for the propagation of crack fronts and possible detachment. A novel approach for crack propagation is highlighted where no change in mesh topology is required. The entire computation from flow to impingement, ice accretion and crack analysis only requires a single mesh. The accretion and stress module are validated individually with published data. The analysis is extended to demonstrate potential shedding scenarios on three complex industrially-relevant 3D cases: a helicopter blade, an engine fan blade and a turboprop propeller. The largest shed fragment will be analyzed in the context of FOD damage to neighboring aircraft/component surfaces.
Technical Paper

An Eulerian Approach with Mesh Adaptation for Highly Accurate 3D Droplet Dynamics Simulations

2019-06-10
2019-01-2012
Two main approaches are available when studying droplet dynamics for in-flight icing simulations: the Lagrangian approach, in which each droplet trajectory is integrated until it impacts the vehicle under study or when it leaves it behind without impact, and the Eulerian approach, where the droplet dynamics is solved as a continuum. In both cases, the same momentum equations are solved. Each approach has its advantages. In 2D, the Lagrangian approach is easy to code and it is very efficient, particularly when used in combination with a panel method flow solver. However, it is a far less practical approach for 3D simulations, particularly on complex geometries, as it is not an easy task to accurately determine the droplet seeding region without a great number of droplet trajectories, dramatically increasing the computing cost. Converting the impact locations into a water collection distribution is also a complex task, since droplet trajectories in 3D can follow convoluted paths.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Ice Crystal Accretion Inside an Engine Core Stator

2019-06-10
2019-01-2017
A CFD simulation methodology is presented to calculate blockage due to ice crystal icing of the IGV passages of a gas turbine engine. The computational domain consists of six components and includes the nacelle, the full bypass and the air induction section up to the second stage of the low-pressure compressor. The model is of a geared turbofan with a fan that rotates at 4,100 rpm and a low-pressure stage that rotates at 8,000 rpm. The flight conditions are based on a cruising speed of Mach 0.67 in Appendix-D icing conditions with an ice crystal content is 4.24 g/m3. Crystal bouncing, and re-entrainment is considered in the calculations, along with variable relative humidity and crystal melting due to warmer temperatures within the engine core. Total time of icing is set to 20 seconds. The CFD airflow and ice crystal simulations are performed on the full 6-stage domain. The initial icing calculation determines which stage will be chosen for a more comprehensive analysis.
Technical Paper

Numerical Demonstration of the Humidity Effect in Engine Icing

2019-06-10
2019-01-2015
The importance of the variation of relative humidity across turbomachinery engine components for in-flight icing is shown by numerical analysis. A species transport equation for vapor has been added to the existing CFD methodology for the simulation of ice growth and water flow on engine components that are subject to ice crystal icing. This entire system couples several partial differential equations that consider heat and mass transfer between droplets, crystals and air, adding the cooling of the air due to particle evaporation to the icing simulation, increasing the accuracy of the evaporative heat fluxes on wetted walls. Three validation cases are presented for the new methodology: the first one compares with the numerical results of droplets traveling inside an icing tunnel with an existing evaporation model proposed by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC).
Technical Paper

Multi-Shot Icing Simulations with Automatic Re-Meshing

2019-06-10
2019-01-1956
A full-automated CFD mesh generation technique has been developed and implemented for 3-D aircraft icing simulations to permit robust 45-minute ice accretion simulations in support of icing certification campaigns. The changes in the shape of the aircraft surfaces due to accreting ice and their effects on the air and droplet flow are accounted for in a quasi-steady manner by subdividing the total icing time into sequential steps of shorter duration, updating the computational grid at each step. This “multi-shot” ice accretion approach requires robust and accurate grid re-meshing for it to be embedded in engineering design and analysis workflows. ANSYS FENSAP-ICE has been coupled to Fluent Meshing to take advantage of generic and highly automated surface displacement and mesh wrapping tools. A wide spectrum of geometries is supported, ranging from full-size aircraft to air data probes, turbomachinery components, rotors and propellers.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Aircraft and Variable-Pitch Propeller Icing with Explicit Coupling

2019-06-10
2019-01-1954
A 3D CFD methodology is presented to simulate ice build-up on propeller blades exposed to known icing conditions in flight, with automatic blade pitch variation at constant RPM to maintain the desired thrust. One blade of a six-blade propeller and a 70-passenger twin-engine turboprop are analyzed as stand-alone components in a multi-shot quasi-steady icing simulation. The thrust that must be generated by the propellers is obtained from the drag computed on the aircraft. The flight conditions are typical for a 70-passenger twin-engine turboprop in a holding pattern in Appendix C icing conditions: 190 kts at an altitude of 6,000 ft. The rotation rate remains constant at 850 rpm, a typical operating condition for this flight envelope.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Finite Element and Hybrid Finite Element Results to Test Data for the Vibration of a Production Car Body

2019-06-05
2019-01-1530
The Hybrid Finite Element Analysis (HFEA) method is based on combining conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solutions and energy methods for mid-frequency computations. The method is appropriate for computing the vibration of structures which are comprised by stiff load bearing components and flexible panels attached to them; and for considering structure-borne loadings with the excitations applied on the load bearing members. In such situations, the difficulty in using conventional FEA at higher frequencies originates from requiring a very large number of elements in order to capture the flexible wavelength of the panel members which are present in a structure. In the HFEA the conventional FEA model is modified by de-activating the bending behavior of the flexible panels in the FEA computations and introducing instead a large number of dynamic impedance elements for representing the omitted bending behavior of the panels.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Elastically Supported Plate due to Excitation of a Turbulent Boundary Layer

2019-06-05
2019-01-1470
High-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are an important source for inducing structural vibration. Small geometric features of a structure can generate significant turbulence that result in structural vibration. In this work we develop a new method to couple a high-fidelity fluid solver with a dynamic hybrid analytical-numerical formulation for the structure. The fluid solver uses the Large-Eddy Simulation closure for the unresolved turbulence. Specifically, a local and dynamic one-equation eddy viscosity model is employed. The fluid pressure fluctuation on the structure is mapped to the dynamic structural model. The plate where the flow excitation is applied is considered as part of a larger structure. A hybrid approach based on the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) is used for developing the new hybrid formulation. The dynamic behavior of the plate which is excited by the flow is modeled using finite elements.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Modeling and Optimization of a Submarine Pressure Hull

2019-06-05
2019-01-1498
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been validated in the past through comparison with test data for computing the structural vibration and the radiated noise for Naval systems in the mid to high frequency range. A main benefit of the method is that it enables fast computations for full scale models. This capability is exploited by using the EFEA for a submarine pressure hull design optimization study. A generic but representative pressure hull is considered. Design variables associated with the dimensions of the king frames, the thickness of the pressure hull in the vicinity of the excitation (the latter is considered to be applied on the king frames of the machinery room), the dimensions of the frames, and the damping applied on the hull are adjusted during the optimization process in order to minimize the radiated noise in the frequency range from 1,000Hz to 16,000Hz.
Technical Paper

A Methodology of Design for Fatigue Using an Accelerated Life Testing Approach with Saddlepoint Approximation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0159
We present an Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) methodology along with a design for fatigue approach, using Gaussian or non-Gaussian excitations. The accuracy of fatigue life prediction at nominal loading conditions is affected by model and material uncertainty. This uncertainty is reduced by performing tests at a higher loading level, resulting in a reduction in test duration. Based on the data obtained from experiments, we formulate an optimization problem to calculate the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) values of the uncertain model parameters. In our proposed ALT method, we lift all the assumptions on the type of life distribution or the stress-life relationship and we use Saddlepoint Approximation (SPA) method to calculate the fatigue life Probability Density Functions (PDFs).
Technical Paper

The Computational Cost and Accuracy of Spray Droplet Collision Models

2019-04-02
2019-01-0279
This study focuses on Lagrangian spray models that are commonly used in engine CFD simulations. In modeling sprays, droplet collision is one of the physical phenomena that must be accounted for. There are two main parts of droplet collision models for sprays - detecting colliding pairs of droplets and predicting the outcomes of these collisions. For the first part, we focus on the efficiency of the algorithm. We present an implementation of the arbitrary adaptive collision mesh model of Hou and Schmidt [1], and examine its efficiency in dealing with large simulations. Through theoretical analysis and numerical tests, we show that the computational cost of this model scales pseudo-linearly with respect to the number of parcels in the sprays. Regarding the second part, we examine the variations in existing phenomenological models used for predicting binary droplet collision outcomes. A quantitative accuracy metric is used to evaluate the models with respect to the experimental data set.
Technical Paper

Transmission Shift Strategies for Electrically Supercharged Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0308
This work investigates the potential improvements in vehicle fuel economy possible by optimizing gear shift strategies to leverage a novel boosting device, an electrically assisted variable speed supercharger (EAVS), also referred to as a power split supercharger (PSS). Realistic gear shift strategies, resembling those commercially available, have been implemented to control upshift and downshift points based on torque request and engine speed. Using a baseline strategy from a turbocharged application of a MY2015 Ford Escape, a vehicle gas mileage of 34.4 mpg was achieved for the FTP75 drive cycle before considering the best efficiency regions of the supercharged engine.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Effect of Initialization Errors for Enabling Accurate Online Drivetrain Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-0347
Simulations conducted on-board in a vehicle control module can offer valuable information to control strategies. Continued improvements to on-board computing hardware make online simulations of complex dynamic systems such as drivetrains within reach. This capability enables predictions of the system response to various control actions and disturbances. Implementation of online simulations requires model initialization that is consistent with the physical drivetrain state. However, sensor signals and estimated variables are susceptible to errors, compromising the accuracy of the initialization and any future state predictions as the simulation proceeds through the numerical integration process. This paper describes a drivetrain modeling and analysis method that accounts for initialization errors, thereby enabling accurate simulations of system behaviors.
Technical Paper

Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0399
There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility.
Technical Paper

Comfortable Head and Neck Postures in Reclined Seating for Use in Automobile Head Rest Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-0408
Little information is available on passenger preferences for posture and support in highly reclined seat configurations. To address this gap, a laboratory study was conducted with 24 adult passengers at seat back angles from 23 to 53 degrees. Passenger preferences for head and neck posture with and without head support were recorded. This paper presents the characteristics of the passengers’ preferred head support with respect to thorax, head, and neck posture.
Technical Paper

Impact of Aromatics on Engine Performance

2019-04-02
2019-01-0948
Aromatics constitute a significant portion of refinery fuels. Characterizing the impact of various aromatic components on combustion and emissions facilitates formulation of surrogate fuels for engine simulations. The impact of blending aromatics in fuel surrogates is usually nonlinear for ignition characteristics responsible for knocking in spark engines and for combustion phasing in diesel engines. In this work, we have characterized the behavior of nine aromatics components under engine-relevant conditions. A self-consistent and validated detailed kinetics mechanism has been developed for gasoline and diesel surrogates that contains toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, n-butylbenzene, isomers of xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and 1-methylnaphthalene. Numerical experiments using 0-D and 1-D models have been performed to study the relative behavior of these aromatics for different reacting conditions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

2019-04-02
2019-01-1006
The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic bird’s eye view for warnings. Sixteen drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and dynamics of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking after receiving the warning, workload and subject preference.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
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