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Technical Paper

Scale Similarity Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Flows—Particle Image Velocimetry and Large-Eddy Simulations

This presentation is an assessment of the turbulence-stress scale-similarity in an IC engine, which is used for modeling subgrid dissipation in LES. Residual stresses and Leonard stresses were computed after applying progressively smaller spatial filters to measured and simulated velocity distributions. The velocity was measured in the TCC-II engine using planar and stereo PIV taken in three different planes and with three different spatial resolutions, thus yielding two and three velocity components, respectively. Comparisons are made between the stresses computed from the measured velocity and stress computed from the LES resolved-scale velocity from an LES simulation. The results present the degree of similarity between the residual stresses and the Leonard stresses at adjacent scales. The specified filters are systematically reduced in size to the resolution limits of the measurements and simulation.
Technical Paper

Two-Point Spatial Velocity Correlations in the Near-Wall Region of a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

Developing a complete understanding of the structure and behavior of the near-wall region (NWR) in reciprocating, internal combustion (IC) engines and of its interaction with the core flow is needed to support the implementation of advanced combustion and engine operation strategies, as well as predictive computational models. The NWR in IC engines is fundamentally different from the canonical steady-state turbulent boundary layers (BL), whose structure, similarity and dynamics have been thoroughly documented in the technical literature. Motivated by this need, this paper presents results from the analysis of two-component velocity data measured with particle image velocimetry near the head of a single-cylinder, optical engine. The interaction between the NWR and the core flow was quantified via statistical moments and two-point velocity correlations, determined at multiple distances from the wall and piston positions.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry Study of In-Cylinder Flows with Improved Dynamic Range

Engine in-cylinder velocity measurements are necessary for the study of cycle-to-cycle variations and the effect of turbulence and air-fuel mixing on combustion. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) can provide measurements through the entire cycle, for multiple contiguous cycles. However, the PIV dynamic range, using a single spatial resolution and image separation, is insufficient to resolve the wide range of in-cylinder velocity and spatial scales encountered throughout the engine cycle. This paper discusses in-cylinder PIV data acquired with cycle resolution from the central tumble plane of a motored spark ignition optical engine using PIV image frame time separations (dts) that were dynamically varied as a function of crank angle. Also, two cameras with different magnifications were used to simultaneously acquire PIV images at high and low spatial resolution.