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Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvement During Cold Start Using Recycled Exhaust Heat and Electrical Energy for Engine Oil and ATF Warm-Up

A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effect of changing engine oil and automatic transmission fluid (ATF) temperatures on the fuel economy during warm-up period. The study also evaluates several fuel economy improving devices that reduce the warm-up period by utilizing recycled exhaust heat or an electric heater. A computer simulation model has been developed using a multi-domain 1-D commercial software and calibrated using test data from a passenger vehicle equipped with a 2.4 / 4-cylinder engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission. The model consists of sub-models for driver, vehicle, engine, automatic transmission, cooling system, engine oil circuit, ATF circuit, and electrical system. The model has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to the changing engine oil and ATF temperatures during the cold start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle that is used for the fuel economy evaluation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Simulation of the Vehicle Cooling System for a Heavy Duty Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The cooling system of Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles (SHEVs) is more complicated than that of conventional vehicles due to additional components and various cooling requirements of different components. In this study, a numerical model of the cooling system for a SHEV is developed to investigate the thermal responses and power consumptions of the cooling system. The model is created for a virtual heavy duty tracked SHEV. The powertrain system of the vehicle is also modeled with Vehicle-Engine SIMulation (VESIM) previously developed by the Automotive Research Center at the University of Michigan. VESIM is used for the simulation of powertrain system behaviors under three severe driving conditions and during a realistic driving cycle. The output data from VESIM are fed into the cooling system simulation to provide the operating conditions of powertrain components.
Technical Paper

Pressure Reactive Piston Technology Investigation and Development for Spark Ignition Engines

Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method of improving Spark Ignition (SI) engine fuel economy. The Pressure Reactive Piston (PRP) assembly features a two-piece piston, with a piston crown and separate piston skirt which enclose a spring set between them. The unique feature is that the upper piston reacts to the cylinder pressure, accommodating rapid engine load changes passively. This mechanism effectively limits the peak pressures at high loads without an additional control device, while allowing the engine to operate at high compression ratio during low load conditions. Dynamometer engine testing showed that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) improvement of the PRP over the conventional piston ranged from 8 to 18 % up to 70% load. Knock free full load operation was also achieved. The PRP equipped engine combustion is characterized by reverse motion of the piston crown near top dead center and higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

An Optimization Study of Manufacturing Variation Effects on Diesel Injector Design with Emphasis on Emissions

This paper investigates the effects of manufacturing variations in fuel injectors on the engine performance with emphasis on emissions. The variations are taken into consideration within a Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) framework. A reduced version of Multi-Zone Diesel engine Simulation (MZDS), MZDS-lite, is used to enable the optimization study. The numerical noise of MZDS-lite prohibits the use of gradient-based optimization methods. Therefore, surrogate models are developed to filter out the noise and to reduce computational cost. Three multi-objective optimization problems are formulated, solved and compared: deterministic optimization using MZDS-lite, deterministic optimization using surrogate models and RBDO using surrogate models. The obtained results confirm that manufacturing variation effects must be taken into account in the early product development stages.