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Journal Article

Front Rail Crashworthiness Design for Front Oblique Impact Using a Magic Cube Approach

The front rail, as one main energy absorption component of vehicle front structures, should present steady progressive collapse along its axis and avoid bending collapse during the front oblique impact, but when the angle of loading direction is larger than some critical angle, it will appear bending collapse causing reduced capability of crash energy absorption. This paper is concerned with crashworthiness design of the front rail on a vehicle chassis frame structure considering uncertain crash directions. The objective is to improve the crash direction adaptability of the front rail, without deteriorating the vehicle's crashworthiness performance. Magic Cube (MQ) approach, a systematic design approach, is conducted to analyze the design problem. By applying Space Decomposition of MQ, an equivalent model of the vehicle chassis frame is generated, which simplifies the design problem.
Technical Paper

Off-road Vehicle Dynamic Simulation Based on Slip-Shifted On-road Tire Handling Model

In this research, off-road vehicle simulation is performed with tire-soil interaction model. The predictive semi-analytical model, which is originally developed for tire-snow interaction model by Lee [4], is applied as a tire-soil interaction model and is implemented to MSC/ADAMS, commercial multi-body dynamic software. It is applied to simulate the handling maneuver of military vehicle HMMWV. Two cases are simulated with Michigan sandy loam soil property. Each case has two maneuvers, straight-line brake and step steer (J-turn). First, tire-soil interaction model and conventional on-road tire model are simulated on the flat road of the same frictional coefficient. The proposed tire-soil interaction model provided larger force under the same slip. Second, the same maneuvers are performed with real off-road frictional coefficient. The proposed tire-soil model can be validated and the behavior of the off-road vehicle can be identified through two simulation cases.
Technical Paper

Blast Protection Design of a Military Vehicle System Using a Magic Cube Approach

A Magic Cube (MQ) approach for crashworthiness design has been proposed in previous research [1]. The purpose of this paper is to extend the MQ approach to the blast protection design of a military vehicle system. By applying the Space Decompositions and Target Cascading processes of the MQ approach, three subsystem design problems are identified to systematize the blast protection design problem of a military vehicle. These three subsystems, including seat structure, restraint system, and under-body armor structure, are most influential to the overall blast-protective design target. The effects of a driver seat subsystem design and restraint-system subsystem design on system blast protection are investigated, along with a focused study on the under-body blast-protective structure design problem.
Technical Paper

Innovative Composite Structure Design for Blast Protection

An advanced design methodology is developed for innovative composite structure concepts which can be used in the Army's future ground vehicle systems to protect vehicle and occupants against various explosives. The multi-level and multi-scenario blast simulation and design system integrates three major technologies: a newly developed landmine-soil-composite interaction model; an advanced design methodology, called Function-Oriented Material Design (FOMD); and a novel patent-pending composite material concept, called BTR (Biomimetic Tendon-Reinforced) material. Example results include numerical simulation of a BTR composite under a blast event. The developed blast simulation and design system will enable the prediction, design, and prototyping of blast-protective composite structures for a wide range of damage scenarios in various blast events.
Technical Paper

A Magic Cube Approach for Crashworthiness Design

Vehicle structure crashworthiness design is one of the most challenging problems in product development and it has been studied for decades. Challenges still remain, which include developing a reliable and systematic approach for general crashworthiness design problems, which can be used to design an optimum vehicle structure in terms of topology, shape, and size, and for both structural layout and material layout. In this paper, an advanced and systematic approach is presented, which is called Magic Cube (MQ) approach for crashworthiness design. The proposed MQ approach consists of three major dimensions: Decomposition, Design Methodology, and General Considerations. The Decomposition dimension is related to the major approaches developed for the crashworthiness design problem, which has three layers: Time (Process) Decomposition, Space Decomposition, and Scale Decomposition.
Technical Paper

Design Kit for Accessory Drives (DKAD): Dynamic Analysis of Serpentine Belt Drives

DKAD is an automated analysis tool for evaluating dynamic characteristics of accessory drives. Rotation response analysis predicts natural frequencies and effects of crankshaft excitation. Lateral response of each belt span shows the effect of pulley run-out and parametric excitation. DKAD systematically allows a user to define a design and its operating conditions and then performs a sequence of analysis to visualize the rotational and lateral responses. It also allows a user to quickly explore and assess alternative designs. Belt layout and associated parameters can be saved in templates for future reference.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of a Shape-Topology Optimization System Using a Homogenization Method

The shape and topology optimization method using a homogenization method is a powerful design tool because it can treat topological changes of a design domain. This method was originally developed in 1988 [1] and have been studied by many researchers. However, their scope of application in real vehicle design works has been limited where a design domain and boundary conditions are very complicated. The authors have developed a powerful optimization system by adopting a general purpose finite element analysis code. A method for treating vibration problems is also discussed. A new objective function corresponding to a multi-eigenvalue optimization problem is suggested. An improved optimization algorithm is then applied to solve the problem. Applications of the optimization system to design the body and the parts of a solar car are presented.