Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-1076
Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger.
Technical Paper

Application of Empirical Asperity Contact Model to High Fidelity Wet Clutch System Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-1301
Wet clutches are complex hydrodynamic devices used in both conventional and electrified drivetrain systems. They couple or de-couple powertrain components for applications such as automatic shifting, engine disconnect and torque vectoring. Clutch engagement behaviors vary greatly, depending on design parameters and operating conditions. Because of their direct impact on vehicle drivability and fuel economy, a predictive CAE model is desired for enabling analytical design verification processes. During engagement, a wet clutch transmits torque through viscous shear and asperity contact. A conventional Coulomb’s model, which is routinely utilized in shift simulations, is inadequate to capture non-linear hydrodynamic effects for higher fidelity analysis. Extensive research has been conducted over the years to derive hydrodynamic torque transfer models based on 1D squeeze film or 3D CFD. They are typically coupled with an elastic asperity contact model for mechanical torque transfer.
Journal Article

Development of Empirical Asperity Contact Model for Wet Friction Material

2019-04-02
2019-01-0346
A wet clutch couples or decouples gear elements to alter torque paths in an automatic transmission system. During the gear shifting event, the clutch torque is directly transmitted to the output shaft. Hence, clutch torque heavily influences the dynamics of the transmission. In order to evaluate the behavior of the transmission early and efficiently, the development process increasingly relies on high-fidelity transmission system simulations with added complexity. However, a wet clutch continues to be modeled using Coulomb’s friction in a typical shift simulation. Its linear framework does not physically represent non-linear hydrodynamic effects due to the presence of oil layer during clutch engagement. To make up the lack of physics, Coulomb’s clutch model often requires extensive tuning to match actual shift behaviors.
Journal Article

In-Vehicle Characterization of Wet Clutch Engagement Behaviors in Automatic Transmission Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0395
A new generation of a planetary-gear-based automatic transmission system is designed with an increasing number of ratio steps. It requires synchronous operation of one or more wet clutches, to achieve a complex shift event. A missed synchronization results in drive torque disturbance which may be perceived by vehicle occupants as an undesirable shift shock. Accurate knowledge of clutch behaviors in an actual vehicle environment is indispensable for achieving precise clutch controls and reducing shift calibration effort. Wet clutches are routinely evaluated on an industry-standard SAE#2 tester during the clutch design process. While it is a valuable tool for screening relative frictional behaviors, clutch engagement data from a SAE#2 tester do not correlate well with vehicle shift behaviors due to the limited reproducibility of realistic slip, actuator force profiles, and lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

2017-11-17
2017-01-5020
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles. For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA.
Technical Paper

Control of Gear Ratio and Slip in Continuously Variable Transmissions: A Model Predictive Control Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1104
The efficiency of power transmission through a Van Doorne type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) can be improved by allowing a small amount of relative slip between the engine and driveline side pulleys. However, excessive slip must be avoided to prevent transmission wear and damage. To enable fuel economy improvements without compromising drivability, a CVT control system must ensure accurate tracking of the gear ratio set-point while satisfying pointwise-in-time constraints on the slip, enforcing limits on the pulley forces, and counteracting driveline side and engine side disturbances. In this paper, the CVT control problem is approached from the perspective of Model Predictive Control (MPC). To develop an MPC controller, a low order nonlinear model of the CVT is established. This model is linearized at a selected operating point, and the resulting linear model is extended with extra states to ensure zero steady-state error when tracking constant set-points.
Journal Article

Two-Phase MRF Model for Wet Clutch Drag Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1127
Wet clutch packs are widely used in today’s automatic transmission systems for gear-ratio shifting. The frictional interfaces between the clutch plates are continuously lubricated with transmission fluid for both thermal and friction management. The open clutch packs shear transmission fluid across the rotating plates, contributing to measurable energy losses. A typical multi-speed transmission includes as many as 5 clutch packs. Of those, two to three clutches are open at any time during a typical drive cycle, presenting an opportunity for fuel economy gain. However, reducing open clutch drag is very challenging, while meeting cooling requirements and shift quality targets. In practice, clutch design adjustment is performed through trial-and-error evaluation of hardware on a test bench. The use of analytical methodologies is limited for optimizing clutch design features due to the complexity of fluid-structure interactions under rotating conditions.
Journal Article

Lightweight Stiffening Ribs in Structural Plates

2017-03-28
2017-01-0268
The aim of this analysis was to model the effect of adding stiffening ribs in structural aluminum components by friction stir processing (FSP) Nano material into the aluminum matrix. These stiffening ribs could dampen, redirect, or otherwise alter the transmission of energy waves created from automotive, ballistic, or blast shocks to improve noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) and structural integrity (reduced joint stress) response. Since the ribs are not created by geometry changes they can be space efficient and deflect blast / ballistic energy better than geometry ribbing, resulting in a lighter weight solution. The blast and ballistic performance of different FSP rib patterns in AL 5182 and AL 7075 were simulated and compared to the performance of an equivalent weight of RHA plate FSP helps to increase localized strength and stiffness of the base metal, while achieving light weighting of the base metal.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Vehicle Muffler Transmission Loss using Hybrid Method

2015-06-15
2015-01-2306
This study presents an efficient process to optimize the transmission loss of a vehicle muffler by using both experimental and analytical methods. Two production mufflers were selected for this study. Both mufflers have complex partitions and one of them was filled with absorbent fiberglass. CAD files of the mufflers were established for developing FEA models in ANSYS and another commercial software program (CFEA). FEA models were validated by experimental measurements using a two-source method. After the models were verified, sensitivity studies of design parameters were performed to optimize the transmission loss (TL) of both mufflers. The sensitivity study includes the perforated hole variations, partition variations and absorbent material insertion. The experimental and sensitivity analysis results are included in the paper.
Technical Paper

Acoustics Characterization of Nano Enhanced Open Cell Foams

2015-06-15
2015-01-2205
A comprehensive and systematic investigation of the acoustical performance of carbon-nanotube-enhanced polyurethane (PU) foams was performed. The complete foam making process was carried out carefully in order to create stable foams to be integrated with many carbon nanotube materials. A total of eight design parameters were evaluated. Both normal incidence sound transmission loss (STL) and absorption coefficient were measured by use of an impedance tube. It was found that there is an optimum value for most of the design parameters. In general, nanotube-enhanced PU foam definitely demonstrated improvements in both absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss. The improvement of absorption could reach up to 14% and the improvement in STL was quite substantial, i.e. up to 97.5%. This significant improvement in STL with a better absorption coefficient could represent a potential breakthrough in acoustical PU foam manufacturing.
Journal Article

Launch Performance Optimization of GTDI-DCT Powertrain

2015-04-14
2015-01-1111
A direct trajectory optimization approach is developed to assess the capability of a GTDI-DCT Powertrain, with a Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine and Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT), to satisfy stringent drivability requirements during launch. The optimization is performed directly on a high fidelity black box powertrain model for which a single simulation of a launch event takes about 8 minutes. To address this challenging problem, an efficient parameterization of the control trajectory using Gaussian kernel functions and a Mesh Adaptive Direct Search optimizer are exploited. The results and observations are reported for the case of clutch torque optimization for launch at normal conditions, at high altitude conditions and at non-zero grade conditions. The results and observations are also presented for the case of simultaneous optimization of multiple actuator trajectories at normal conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvement During Cold Start Using Recycled Exhaust Heat and Electrical Energy for Engine Oil and ATF Warm-Up

2014-04-01
2014-01-0674
A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effect of changing engine oil and automatic transmission fluid (ATF) temperatures on the fuel economy during warm-up period. The study also evaluates several fuel economy improving devices that reduce the warm-up period by utilizing recycled exhaust heat or an electric heater. A computer simulation model has been developed using a multi-domain 1-D commercial software and calibrated using test data from a passenger vehicle equipped with a 2.4 / 4-cylinder engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission. The model consists of sub-models for driver, vehicle, engine, automatic transmission, cooling system, engine oil circuit, ATF circuit, and electrical system. The model has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to the changing engine oil and ATF temperatures during the cold start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle that is used for the fuel economy evaluation.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Sound Transmission Loss and Absorption Coefficient of Acoustical Materials

2011-05-17
2011-01-1625
Acoustical materials are widely used in automotive vehicles and other industrial applications. Two important parameters namely Sound Transmission Loss (STL) and absorption coefficient are commonly used to evaluate the acoustical performance of these materials. Other parameters, such as insertion loss, noise reduction, and loss factors are also used to judge their performance depending on the application of these materials. A systematic comparative study of STL and absorption coefficient was conducted on various porous acoustical materials. Several dozen materials including needled cotton fiber (shoddy) and foam materials with or without barrier/scrim were investigated. The results of STL and absorption coefficient are presented and compared. As expected, it was found that most of materials are either good in STL or good in absorption. However, some combinations can achieve a balance of performance in both categories.
Technical Paper

Power-By-Wire Piezoelectric-Hydraulic Pump Actuator for Automotive Transmission Shift Control

2009-04-20
2009-01-0950
In this study, a new actuation system concept is developed for automotive transmission shift control. A piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (in short, PHP) based actuation system is one of the potential alternatives that can replace the current electro-hydraulic actuation system in automotive transmissions. Their feasibility has been successfully demonstrated in a lab environment. This study extends the application of the PHP actuator into an AT (Automatic Transmission) test-bed to validate the effectiveness of the new power-by-wire actuation concept. To demonstrate the potentials of the PHP actuator, a nonlinear sliding mode control for force tracking and hardware-in-the-loop simulation (in short, HILS) are performed.
Technical Paper

Plant Identification and Design of Optimal Clutch Engagement Controller

2006-10-31
2006-01-3539
Automated clutches for vehicle startup is being increasingly deployed in commercial trucks for benefits, which include driver comfort, gradient performance, improved clutch life, emissions and driveline vibration reduction potential. The process of designing the controller is divided into 2 parts. Firstly, the parameter estimation of previously developed driveline models is carried out. The procedure involves an off-line minimization technique based on measured and estimated speeds. Secondly, the nominal plant model is used to develop LQR based optimal control strategy, which takes into account the slip time, dissipated power and slip acceleration. Mathematical expression of the performance index is clearly developed. A variety of clutch lock up profiles can be incorporated by changing a single tuning parameter, thus providing the driver the ability to select a launch profile based on specific driving objectives.
Technical Paper

Modeling Fully-Coupled Rigid Engine Dynamics and Vibrations

1999-05-17
1999-01-1749
The internal combustion (IC) engine is an important source of vibration in many vehicles, and understanding its dynamic response to demands from both the vehicle operator and the terrain is essential to proper engine and mount design and optimization. Development of an engineering tool for understanding this dynamic response and the resulting forces transmitted from the engine block to the supporting structure is a priority in both commercial and military engine applications. Ideally, engine dynamics and vibration would be directly simulated through effective and efficient analytical and computational models of both the internal engine component dynamics as well as engine block vibrations. The present analytical study was undertaken to produce a comprehensive and efficient rigid-body engine dynamics and vibration model which predicts engine block motion, engine mount load transmission, as well as instantaneous engine crankshaft rotational speed.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Lubricant/Main Shaft Interaction and Dryout in an Automatic Transmission Model

1998-05-04
981447
When unexpected integrated lubricant-related problems occur, for example, high-speed operating conditions, lubricants can be degraded and even fail to reach certain automatic transmission parts. Dryout of oil films means a serious lack of lubrication, which may damage the power transmission line and key parts. Dryout of ATF is analogous to that in forced convective boiling and condensation. It thus requires special efforts to determine the mechanics that induce such fluid transport phenomena. This paper presents an experimental investigation of lubricant activities in the main shaft. Dimensional analysis is applied, and flow maps of the air-oil flow and dryout regimes are constructed. Correlations closely agree with the data and reveal the possibility of dryout. Heat transfer effect is briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

An Improved Seating Accommodation Model with Application to Different User Populations

1998-02-23
980651
A new approach to driver seat-position modeling is presented. The equations of the Seating Accommodation Model (SAM) separately predict parameters of the distributions of male and female fore/aft seat position in a given vehicle. These distributions are used together to predict specific percentiles of the combined male-and-female seat-position distribution. The effects of vehicle parameters-seat height, steering-wheel-to-accelerator pedal distance, seat-cushion angle, and transmission type-are reflected in the prediction of mean seat position. The mean and standard deviation of driver population stature are included in the prediction for the mean and standard deviation of the seat-position distribution, respectively. SAM represents a new, more flexible approach to predicting fore/aft seat-position distributions for any driver population in passenger vehicles. Model performance is good, even at percentiles in the tails of the distribution.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Assessment of a Transmission Case: Magnesium vs. Aluminum

1998-02-23
980470
This paper describes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) done to evaluate the relative environmental performance of magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) automatic transmission cases. Magnesium is considered a lighter weight substitute for aluminum in this application. Light weighting of vehicles increases fuel economy and is an important vehicle design metric. The objective of this LCA is to quantify energy and other environmental trade-offs associated with each alternative for material production, manufacturing, use, and end-of-life management stages. Key features of the inventory modeling and the data collection and analysis methods are included in this paper along with life cycle inventory profiles of aluminum and magnesium alternatives. The life cycle inventory (LCI) was interpreted using a set of environmental metrics and areas needing further research were identified. A qualitative cost assessment was done in conjunction with this LCA to highlight potential cost drivers.
Technical Paper

Statistical Energy Methods for Mid-Frequency Vibration Transmission Analysis

1997-05-20
972010
In this work, we discuss statistical energy methods for predicting mid-frequency vibration transmission between two spring-coupled substructures with parameter uncertainties. We adopt a parameter-based approach, which allows us to relax certain assumptions associated with a classical Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approximation. We consider both a numerical method and an analytical method. The latter is called a Parameter-based Statistical Energy Method (PSEM). An example of two elastic bars coupled by a single spring or multiple springs is examined. The power transmitted from the excited substructure to the other substructure is calculated and compared for the various methods.
X