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Technical Paper

Research on the Driving Stability Control System of the Dual-Motor Drive Electric Vehicle

In order to improve the steering stability of the dual-motor drive electric vehicle, Taking the yaw rate and the sideslip angle as the control variables, Using the improved two degree of freedom linear dynamic model and seven degree of freedom nonlinear vehicle dynamics model, The hierarchical structure is used to establish the dual-motor drive electric vehicle steering stability control strategy which consist of the upper direct yaw moment decision-making layer based on the sliding mode controller and the lower additional yaw moment distribution layer based on the optimization theory. The Matlab/Simulink-Carsim joint simulation platform was built. The control strategy proposed in this paper was simulated and verified under the snake test condition and double-line shift test condition.
Technical Paper

Control of Gear Ratio and Slip in Continuously Variable Transmissions: A Model Predictive Control Approach

The efficiency of power transmission through a Van Doorne type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) can be improved by allowing a small amount of relative slip between the engine and driveline side pulleys. However, excessive slip must be avoided to prevent transmission wear and damage. To enable fuel economy improvements without compromising drivability, a CVT control system must ensure accurate tracking of the gear ratio set-point while satisfying pointwise-in-time constraints on the slip, enforcing limits on the pulley forces, and counteracting driveline side and engine side disturbances. In this paper, the CVT control problem is approached from the perspective of Model Predictive Control (MPC). To develop an MPC controller, a low order nonlinear model of the CVT is established. This model is linearized at a selected operating point, and the resulting linear model is extended with extra states to ensure zero steady-state error when tracking constant set-points.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Tire Health Monitoring System Using On-board Motion Sensors

This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear.
Technical Paper

Development of A New Dynamic Rollover Test Methodology for Heavy Vehicles

Among all the vehicle rollover test procedures, the SAE J2114 dolly rollover test is the most widely used. However, it requires the test vehicle to be seated on a dolly with a 23° initial angle, which makes it difficult to test a vehicle over 5,000 kg without a dolly design change, and repeatability is often a concern. In the current study, we developed and implemented a new dynamic rollover test methodology that can be used for evaluating crashworthiness and occupant protection without requiring an initial vehicle angle. To do that, a custom cart was designed to carry the test vehicle laterally down a track. The cart incorporates two ramps under the testing vehicle’s trailing-side tires. In a test, the cart with the vehicle travels at the desired test speed and is stopped by a track-mounted curb.
Journal Article

Simulating the Mobility of Wheeled Ground Vehicles with Mercury

Mercury is a high-fidelity, physics-based object-oriented software for conducting simulations of vehicle performance evaluations for requirements and engineering metrics. Integrating cutting-edge, massively parallel modeling techniques for soft, cohesive and dry granular soil that will integrate state-of-the-art soil simulation with high-fidelity multi-body dynamics and powertrain modeling to provide a comprehensive mobility simulator for ground vehicles. The Mercury implements the Chrono::Vehicle dynamics library for vehicle dynamics, which provides multi-body dynamic simulation of wheeled and tracked vehicles. The powertrain is modeled using the Powertrain Analysis Computational Environment (PACE), a behavior-based powertrain analysis based on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Autonomie software. Vehicle -terrain interaction (VTI) is simulated with the Ground Contact Element (GCE), which provides forces to the Chrono-vehicle solver.
Journal Article

Residual Stress Distributions in Rectangular Bars Due to High Rolling Loads

In this paper, residual stress distributions in rectangular bars due to rolling or burnishing at very high rolling or burnishing loads are investigated by roll burnishing experiments and three-dimensional finite element analyses using ABAQUS. First, roll burnishing experiments on rectangular bars at two roller burnishing loads are presented. The results indicate the higher burnishing load induces lower residual stresses and the higher burnishing load does not improve fatigue lives. Next, in the corresponding finite element analyses, the roller is modeled as rigid and the roller rolls on the flat surface of the bar with a low coefficient of friction. The bar material is modeled as an elastic-plastic strain hardening material with a nonlinear kinematic hardening rule for loading and unloading.
Journal Article

Validation Metric for Dynamic System Responses under Uncertainty

To date, model validation metric is prominently designed for non-dynamic model responses. Though metrics for dynamic responses are also available, they are specifically designed for the vehicle impact application and uncertainties are not considered in the metric. This paper proposes the validation metric for general dynamic system responses under uncertainty. The metric makes use of the popular U-pooling approach and extends it for dynamic responses. Furthermore, shape deviation metric was proposed to be included in the validation metric with the capability of considering multiple dynamic test data. One vehicle impact model is presented to demonstrate the proposed validation metric.
Journal Article

Fused Dynamics of Unmanned Ground Vehicle Systems

Through inverse dynamics-based modeling and computer simulations for a 6×6 Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) - a 6×6 truck - in stochastic terrain conditions, this paper analytically presents a coupled impact of different driveline system configurations and a suspension design on vehicle dynamics, including vehicle mobility, and energy efficiency. A new approach in this research work involves an estimation of each axle contribution to the level of potential mobility loss/increase and/or energy consumption increase/ reduction. As it is shown, the drive axles of the vehicle interfere with the vehicle's dynamics through the distribution of the wheels' normal reactions and wheel torques. The interference causes the independent system dynamics to become operationally coupled/fused and thus diminishes vehicle mobility and energy efficiency. The analysis is done by the use of new mobility indices and energy efficiency indices which are functionally coupled/fused.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Driving Simulation of Magneto-Rheological Active Damper Stryker Suspension

Real-time driving simulations are an important tool for verifying vehicle and vehicle component designs with a driver in the loop. They not only provide a cost effective solution but also an ability to verify designs in a safe and controlled operating environment. A real-time driving experiment has been developed for Stryker to compare the ride and handling performance of a baseline passive suspension to that of a Magneto-Rheological (MR) semi-active damper suspension. The Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) has integrated this new suspension into a real time vehicle dynamics model of the Stryker using the MR suspension model developed by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). Using this real-time model and the TARDEC Ride Motion Simulator (RMS), TARDEC associates, along with associates from the Stryker Program Management office and the suspension OEM were able to drive and compare the passive and MR Stryker in a virtual environment.
Technical Paper

Plant Identification and Design of Optimal Clutch Engagement Controller

Automated clutches for vehicle startup is being increasingly deployed in commercial trucks for benefits, which include driver comfort, gradient performance, improved clutch life, emissions and driveline vibration reduction potential. The process of designing the controller is divided into 2 parts. Firstly, the parameter estimation of previously developed driveline models is carried out. The procedure involves an off-line minimization technique based on measured and estimated speeds. Secondly, the nominal plant model is used to develop LQR based optimal control strategy, which takes into account the slip time, dissipated power and slip acceleration. Mathematical expression of the performance index is clearly developed. A variety of clutch lock up profiles can be incorporated by changing a single tuning parameter, thus providing the driver the ability to select a launch profile based on specific driving objectives.
Technical Paper

Implementing the Milliken Moment Method using Controlled Dynamic Simulation

The Milliken Moment Method (MMM) can be used to quantify the constraints imposed on vehicle stability and controllability by front and rear tire traction limitations. The main aspect of the Milliken Moment Method is the plot of vehicle's yaw moment versus lateral acceleration for given vehicle sideslip and steering angle ranges. This plot is typically called the Milliken Moment Diagram (MMD). This paper proposes a dynamic simulation approach to implementing the MMM that emulates the traditional experimental one. The approach embeds a vehicle dynamics model in a control loop that maintains a constant desired sideslip angle, and integrates the resulting controlled vehicle system model in time to generate the MMD.
Technical Paper

An Architecture for Autonomous Agents in a Driving Simulator

The addition of synthetic traffic to a driving simulation greatly enhances the realism of the virtual world. Giving this traffic human-like behavior is likewise desirable, and has been the focus of some research over the past few years. This paper presents a modular architecture for including autonomous traffic in a driving simulation, and describes the first steps taken toward the application of this architecture to the DaimlerChrysler Auburn Hills Simulator. By separating the planning part of the agent from the low-level control and vehicle dynamics systems, the described architecture permits the inclusion of powerful, previously developed components in a straightforward way; in the present application, agents use Soar to reason about their actions. This paper gives an overview of the structures of the agents, and of the entire system, describes the components and their implementations, and discusses the current state of the project and plans for the future.
Technical Paper

Influence of Tensioner Friction on Accessory Drive Dynamics

Belt drives have long been utilized in engine applications to power accessories such as alternators, pumps, compressors and fans. The first belt drives consisted of one or more V-belts powering fixed-centered pulleys and were pre-tensioned by statically adjusting the pulley center separation distances. In recent years, such drives have been replaced by a single, flat, ‘serpentine belt’ tensioned by an ‘automatic tensioner.’ The automatic tensioner consists of a spring-loaded, dry friction damped, tensioner arm that contacts the belt through an idler pulley. The tensioner's major function is to maintain constant belt tension in the presence of changing engine speeds and accessory loads. The engine crankshaft supplies both the requisite power to drive the accessories as well as the (unwanted) dynamic excitation that can adversely affect the accessories and the noise and vibration performance of the belt.
Technical Paper

Longitudinal Vibration of Elastic Vehicle Track Systems

Real-time simulation of tracked vehicle dynamics demands very efficient modeling of the vehicle track. Multi-body dynamics models which model the response of each track pitch are complete, but require on the order of 100 degrees of freedom to capture lateral track dynamics and an additional 200 degrees of freedom to capture longitudinal (stretching) track dynamics. The sheer size of such models renders them difficult to use for rapid estimates of track response. This paper summarizes an efficient alternative for modeling vehicle tracks, as illustrated herein by a model for longitudinal track dynamics. The present model is a hybrid discrete/continuous model in which the track is modeled as a continuous uniform elastic rod which is kinematically coupled to discrete models for the sprocket, wheels, and rollers. Solution efficiency derives from transforming the dynamic track model to one employing modal coordinates.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of a Single Engine Business Jet

The preliminary design of a single engine business jet is presented. The airplane is intended to fill a market niche surrounded by several types of airplanes: single engine (piston and turboprop) and entry-level twin engine airplanes (turboprop and turbofan). The Williams-Rolls FJ44 turbofan engine, with a takeoff thrust rating of 1900 pounds, is chosen as the powerplant because of its low acquisition and maintenance costs. The airplane is designed to carry four persons and baggage 1500 n.m. with VFR reserves, and is intended to meet FAR 23 standards — including the 61 knot single engine stall speed requirement. A parametric analysis of wing aspect ratio, thickness, and taper is performed to determine the best planform from the standpoint of weight, cruise speed, and cost. Maximum cruise speed is estimated to be 371 knots and the airplane purchase price is estimated to be 1.98 million. These results indicate the airplane will satisfy intended market niche.
Technical Paper

Recent Aircraft Tire Thermal Studies

A method has been developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions at the wheel and runway surface. Comparisons with buried thermocouples in actual aircraft tires shows good agreement.
Technical Paper

Infant and child anthropometry

Although over 800 references to child and infant anthropometry are in the literature, most have limited validity and application to current populations. Functional measures required by industry and government for federal safety standards for design of dummies, child products, furniture, or protective devices such as restraint systems have either been incomplete, inadequate, or nonexistent. Some of the limitations influencing validity of existing data have been outlined for the potential user. As a start toward obtaining necessary functional anthropometric data, The University of Michigan is currently conducting a study sponsored by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission to obtain valid nationwide measurements on a representative U.S. population from birth to age 12 years. In this study some 41 measurements, including many functional measures, as well as seated and supine whole-body centers of gravity, are being taken utilizing a new automated anthropometric minicomputer system.