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Technical Paper

Design Environment for Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-0627
Model Predictive Control (MPC) design methods are becoming popular among automotive control researchers because they explicitly address an important challenge faced by today’s control designers: How does one realize the full performance potential of complex multi-input, multi-output automotive systems while satisfying critical output, state and actuator constraints? Nonlinear MPC (NMPC) offers the potential to further improve performance and streamline the development for those systems in which the dynamics are strongly nonlinear. These benefits are achieved in the MPC framework by using an on-line model of the controlled system to generate the control sequence that is the solution of a constrained optimization problem over a receding horizon.
Journal Article

In-Vehicle Driver State Detection Using TIP-II

2014-04-01
2014-01-0444
A transportable instrumentation package to collect driver, vehicle and environmental data is described. This system is an improvement on an earlier system and is called TIP-II [13]. Two new modules were designed and added to the original system: a new and improved physiological signal module (PH-M) replaced the original physiological signals module in TIP, and a new hand pressure on steering wheel module (HP-M) was added. This paper reports on exploratory tests with TIP-II. Driving data were collected from ten driver participants. Correlations between On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD), video data, physiological data and specific driver behavior such as lane departure and car following were investigated. Initial analysis suggested that hand pressure, skin conductance level, and respiration rate were key indicators of lane departure lateral displacement and velocity, immediately preceding lane departure; heart rate and inter-beat interval were affected during lane changes.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Verity and Volvo Methods for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2013-09-24
2013-01-2357
Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly predict the durability and reliability of vehicles in the early development stage, especially for welded joints, which are usually the weakest locations in a vehicle system. A reliable and validated life assessment method is needed to accurately predict how and where a welded part fails, while iterative testing is expensive and time consuming. Recently, structural stress methods based on nodal force/moment are becoming widely accepted in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. There are several variants of structural stress approaches available and two of the most popular methods being used in automotive industry are the Volvo method and the Verity method. Both methods are available in commercial software and some concepts and procedures related the nodal force/moment have already been included in several engineering codes.
Technical Paper

Validation of the Human Motion Simulation Framework: Posture Prediction for Standing Object Transfer Tasks

2009-06-09
2009-01-2284
The Human Motion Simulation Framework is a hierarchical set of algorithms for physical task simulation and analysis. The Framework is capable of simulating a wide range of tasks, including standing and seated reaches, walking and carrying objects, and vehicle ingress and egress. In this paper, model predictions for the terminal postures of standing object transfer tasks are compared to data from 20 subjects with a wide range of body dimensions. Whole body postures were recorded using optical motion capture for one-handed and two-handed object transfers to target destinations at three angles from straight ahead and three heights. The hand and foot locations from the data were input to the HUMOSIM Framework Reference Implementation (HFRI) in the Jack human modeling software. The whole-body postures predicted by the HFRI were compared to the measured postures using a set of measures selected for their importance to ergonomic analysis.
Technical Paper

Influence of Object Properties on Reaching and Grasping Tasks

2008-06-17
2008-01-1905
This paper investigates how reaching and grasping are affected by various object properties and conditions. While previous studies have examined the effect of object attributes such as size, shape, and distance from the subject, there is a need for quantitative models of finger motions. To accomplish this, the experiment was performed with six subjects where the 3D-coordinates of the finger joints and the wrist of one hand were recorded during reaching and grasping tasks. Finger joint angles at final posture were found to depend on both object size and orientation while wrist postures were changed primarily depending on object orientation. Also, each object orientation caused alteration in relative object location with respect to the hand at final posture. In addition, analysis of temporal variables revealed that it took from 1.06 to 1.30 seconds depending on the object distance to start reaching and complete grasping of the object.
Journal Article

Scheduling of Hand Movements in Bimanual Tasks

2008-06-17
2008-01-1916
This study investigates the organization of upper body coordination in tasks involving complex visual and manual demands. In the past, bimanual coordination has been approached in the context of symmetric or asymmetric interactions of the two hands. But routine behavior associated with work tasks requires synchronization in time and space of multiple components across multiple concurrent actions. Hence the problem of upper body coordination involves a combination of both symmetric and asymmetric modes of interaction, with a dynamic switching between the two. Although current models may explain the two modes of interaction individually, none of the existing models account for an integration of the two modes from the perspective of task performance. A pilot study was conducted in which subjects performed assembly tasks involving object transfers and manipulations with varying levels of visual and manual demands and performance constraints, such as speed and precision.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Model of Gait and Transition Stepping for Simulation of Industrial Workcell Tasks

2007-06-12
2007-01-2478
Industrial tasks performed by standing workers are among those most commonly simulated using digital human models. Workers often walk, turn, and take acyclic steps as they perform these tasks. Current h uman modeling tools lack the capability to simulate these whole body motions accurately. Most models simulate walking by replaying joint angle trajectories corresponding to a general gait pattern. Turning is simulated poorly if at all, and violations of kinematic constraints between the feet and ground are common. Moreover, current models do not accurately predict foot placement with respect to loads and other hand targets, diminishing the utility of the associated ergonomic analyses. A new approach to simulating stepping and walking in task-oriented activities is proposed. Foot placements and motions are predicted from operator and task characteristics using empirical models derived from laboratory data and validated using field data from an auto assembly plant.
Technical Paper

Predicting Foot Positions for Manual Materials Handling Tasks

2005-06-14
2005-01-2681
For many industrial tasks (push, pull, lift, carry, etc.), restrictions on grip locations and visibility constrain the hand and head positions and help to define feasible postures. In contrast, foot locations are often minimally constrained and an ergonomics analyst can choose several different stances in selecting a posture to analyze. Also, because stance can be a critical determinant of a biomechanical assessment of the work posture, the lack of a valid method for placing the feet of a manikin with respect to the task compromises the accuracy of the analysis. To address this issue, foot locations and orientations were captured in a laboratory study of sagittal plane and asymmetric manual load transfers. A pilot study with four volunteers of varying anthropometry approached a load located on one of three shelves and transferred the load to one of six shelves.
Technical Paper

Balance Maintenance during Seated Reaches of People with Spinal Cord Injury

2004-06-15
2004-01-2138
In many task analyses using digital human figure models, only the terminal or apparently most stressful posture is analyzed. For reaches from a seated position, this is generally the posture with the hand or hands at the target. However, depending on the characteristics of the tasks and the people performing them, analyzing only the terminal posture could be misleading. This possibility was examined using data from a study of the reaching behavior of people with spinal cord injury. Participants performed two-handed forward reaching tasks. These reaches were to three targets located in the sagittal plane. The terminal postures did not differ significantly between those with spinal cord injury and those without. However, motion analysis demonstrated that they employed distinct strategies, particularly in the initial phase of motion.
Technical Paper

Modeling Head and Hand Orientation during Motion using Quaternions

2004-06-15
2004-01-2179
Some body parts, such as the head and the hand, change their orientation during motion. Orientation can be conveniently and elegantly represented using quaternions. The method has several advantages over Euler angles in that the problem of gimbal lock is avoided and that the orientation is represented by a single mathematical object rather than a collection of angles that can be redefined in various arbitrary ways. The use of quaternions has been popular in animation applications for some time, especially for interpolating motions. We will introduce some new applications involving statistical methods for quaternions that will allow us to present meaningful averages of repeated motions involving orientations and make regression predictions of orientation. For example, we can model how the glancing behavior of the head changes according to the target of the reach and other factors.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Validity of Kinematically Generated Reach Envelopes for Simulations of Vehicle Operators

2003-06-17
2003-01-2216
Assessments of reach capability using human figure models are commonly performed by exercising each joint of a kinematic chain, terminating in the hand, through the associated ranges of motion. The result is a reach envelope determined entirely by the segment lengths, joint degrees of freedom, and joint ranges of motion. In this paper, the validity of this approach is assessed by comparing the reach envelopes obtained by this method to those obtained in a laboratory study of men and women. Figures were created in the Jack human modeling software to represent the kinematic linkages of participants in the laboratory study. Maximum reach was predicted using the software's kinematic reach-envelope generation methods and by interactive manipulation. Predictions were compared to maximum reach envelopes obtained experimentally. The findings indicate that several changes to the normal procedures for obtaining maximum reach envelopes for seated tasks are needed.
Technical Paper

Data-Based Motion Prediction

2003-06-17
2003-01-2229
A complete scheme for motion prediction based on motion capture data is presented. The scheme rests on three main components: a special posture representation, a diverse motion capture database and prediction method. Most prior motion prediction schemes have been based on posture representations based on well-known local or global angles. Difficulties have arisen when trying to satisfy constraints, such as placing a hand on a target or scaling the posture for a subject of different stature. Inverse kinematic methods based on such angles require optimization that become increasingly complex and computationally intensive for longer linkages. A different representation called stretch pivot coordinates is presented that avoids these difficulties. The representation allows for easy rescaling for stature and other linkage length variations and satisfaction of endpoint constraints, all without optimization allowing for rapid real time use.
Technical Paper

Simulating Reach Motions

1999-05-18
1999-01-1916
Modeling normal human reach behavior is dependent on many factors. Anthropometry, age, gender, joint mobility and muscle strength are a few such factors related to the individual being modeled. Reach locations, seat configurations, and tool weights are a few other task factors that can affect dynamic reach postures. This paper describes how two different modeling approaches are being used in the University of Michigan Human Motion Simulation Laboratory to predict normal seated reaching motions. One type of model uses an inverse kinematic structure with an optimization procedure that minimizes the weighted sum of the instantaneous velocity of each body segment. The second model employs a new functional regression technique to fit polynomial equations to the angular displacements of each body segment. To develop and validate these models, 38 subjects of widely varying age and anthropometry were asked to perform reaching motions while seated in simulated vehicle or industrial workplace.
Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Ride

1985-04-01
850001
Designing trucks for good ride characteristics is a challenge to the engineer, given the many design constraints imposed by requirements for transport productivity and efficiency. The objective of this lecture is to explain why trucks ride as they do, and the basic mechanisms involved. The response of primary interest is the vibration to which the driver is exposed in the cab. Whole-body vibration tolerance curves give an indication of how those vibrations are perceived at the seat; however, ride studies have shown that visual and hand/foot vibrations are also important to the perception of ride in trucks. The ride environment of the truck driver is the product of the applied excitation and the response properties of the truck. The major excitation sources are road roughness, the rotating tire/wheel assemblies, the driveline, and the engine.
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