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Technical Paper

Eco-Driving Strategies for Different Powertrain Types and Scenarios

2019-10-22
2019-01-2608
Connected automated vehicles (CAVs) are quickly becoming a reality, and their potential ability to communicate with each other and the infrastructure around them has big potential impacts on future mobility systems. Perhaps one of the most important impacts could be on network wide energy consumption. A lot of research has already been performed on the topic of eco-driving and the potential fuel and energy consumption benefits for CAVs. However, most of the efforts to date have been based on simulation studies only, and have only considered conventional vehicle powertrains. In this study, experimental data is presented for the potential eco-driving benefits of two specific intersection approach scenarios, for four different powertrain types.
Technical Paper

Design of Experiments for Effects and Interactions during Brake Emissions Testing Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-09-15
2019-01-2139
The investigation and measurement of particle emissions from foundation brakes require the use of a special adaptation of inertia dynamometer test systems. To have proper measurements for particle mass and particle number, the sampling system needs to minimize transport losses and reduce residence times inside the brake enclosure. Existing models and spreadsheets estimate key transport losses (diffusion, turbophoretic, contractions, gravitational, bends, and sampling isokinetics). A significant limitation of such models is that they cannot assess the turbulent flow and associated particle dynamics inside the brake enclosure; which are anticipated to be important. This paper presents a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow within a dynamometer enclosure under relevant operating conditions. The systematic approach allows the quantification of turbulence intensity, mean velocity profiles, and residence times.
Technical Paper

Exploration of Cavitation-Suppressing Orifice Designs for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Operating with Straight-Run Gasoline

2019-09-09
2019-24-0126
The occurrence of cavitation inside injectors is generally undesirable since it can cause material erosion and result in deviations from the expected injector performance. Previous numerical work employing an injector geometry measured with x-ray diagnostics and operating with a high-volatility straight-run gasoline (SRG) has shown that: (1) most of the cavitation is generally observed at low needle lifts, (2) needle motion is responsible for asymmetric structures in the internal flow as well as large pressure and velocity gradients that trigger phase transition at the orifice inlets, and (3) cavitation affects the injector discharge coefficient and distribution of injected fuel. To explore the potential for material damage within the injector orifices due to cavitation cloud collapse, the cavitation-induced erosion risk assessment (CIERA) tool has been applied for the first time to the realistic geometry of a heavy-duty injector using the CONVERGE software.
Technical Paper

Zero-Dimensional Heat Release Modeling Framework for Gasoline Compression-Ignition Engines with Multiple Injection Events

2019-09-09
2019-24-0083
A zero-dimensional heat release model was developed for compression ignition engines. This type of model can be utilized for parametric studies, off-line optimization to reduce experimental efforts as well as model-based control strategies. In this particular case, the combustion model, in a simpler form, will be used in future efforts to control the combustion in compression ignition engines operating on gasoline-like fuels. To allow for a realistic representation of the in-cylinder combustion process, a spray model has been employed to allow for the quantification of fuel distribution as well as turbulent kinetic energy within the injection spray. The combustion model framework is capable of reflecting premixed as well as mixing controlled combustion. Fuel is assigned to various combustion events based on the air-fuel mixture within the spray.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Finite Element and Hybrid Finite Element Results to Test Data for the Vibration of a Production Car Body

2019-06-05
2019-01-1530
The Hybrid Finite Element Analysis (HFEA) method is based on combining conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solutions and energy methods for mid-frequency computations. The method is appropriate for computing the vibration of structures which are comprised by stiff load bearing components and flexible panels attached to them; and for considering structure-borne loadings with the excitations applied on the load bearing members. In such situations, the difficulty in using conventional FEA at higher frequencies originates from requiring a very large number of elements in order to capture the flexible wavelength of the panel members which are present in a structure. In the HFEA the conventional FEA model is modified by de-activating the bending behavior of the flexible panels in the FEA computations and introducing instead a large number of dynamic impedance elements for representing the omitted bending behavior of the panels.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Elastically Supported Plate due to Excitation of a Turbulent Boundary Layer

2019-06-05
2019-01-1470
High-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are an important source for inducing structural vibration. Small geometric features of a structure can generate significant turbulence that result in structural vibration. In this work we develop a new method to couple a high-fidelity fluid solver with a dynamic hybrid analytical-numerical formulation for the structure. The fluid solver uses the Large-Eddy Simulation closure for the unresolved turbulence. Specifically, a local and dynamic one-equation eddy viscosity model is employed. The fluid pressure fluctuation on the structure is mapped to the dynamic structural model. The plate where the flow excitation is applied is considered as part of a larger structure. A hybrid approach based on the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) is used for developing the new hybrid formulation. The dynamic behavior of the plate which is excited by the flow is modeled using finite elements.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Modeling and Optimization of a Submarine Pressure Hull

2019-06-05
2019-01-1498
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been validated in the past through comparison with test data for computing the structural vibration and the radiated noise for Naval systems in the mid to high frequency range. A main benefit of the method is that it enables fast computations for full scale models. This capability is exploited by using the EFEA for a submarine pressure hull design optimization study. A generic but representative pressure hull is considered. Design variables associated with the dimensions of the king frames, the thickness of the pressure hull in the vicinity of the excitation (the latter is considered to be applied on the king frames of the machinery room), the dimensions of the frames, and the damping applied on the hull are adjusted during the optimization process in order to minimize the radiated noise in the frequency range from 1,000Hz to 16,000Hz.
Technical Paper

A Methodology of Design for Fatigue Using an Accelerated Life Testing Approach with Saddlepoint Approximation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0159
We present an Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) methodology along with a design for fatigue approach, using Gaussian or non-Gaussian excitations. The accuracy of fatigue life prediction at nominal loading conditions is affected by model and material uncertainty. This uncertainty is reduced by performing tests at a higher loading level, resulting in a reduction in test duration. Based on the data obtained from experiments, we formulate an optimization problem to calculate the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) values of the uncertain model parameters. In our proposed ALT method, we lift all the assumptions on the type of life distribution or the stress-life relationship and we use Saddlepoint Approximation (SPA) method to calculate the fatigue life Probability Density Functions (PDFs).
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Effect of Initialization Errors for Enabling Accurate Online Drivetrain Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-0347
Simulations conducted on-board in a vehicle control module can offer valuable information to control strategies. Continued improvements to on-board computing hardware make online simulations of complex dynamic systems such as drivetrains within reach. This capability enables predictions of the system response to various control actions and disturbances. Implementation of online simulations requires model initialization that is consistent with the physical drivetrain state. However, sensor signals and estimated variables are susceptible to errors, compromising the accuracy of the initialization and any future state predictions as the simulation proceeds through the numerical integration process. This paper describes a drivetrain modeling and analysis method that accounts for initialization errors, thereby enabling accurate simulations of system behaviors.
Technical Paper

Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0399
There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility.
Technical Paper

Comfortable Head and Neck Postures in Reclined Seating for Use in Automobile Head Rest Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-0408
Little information is available on passenger preferences for posture and support in highly reclined seat configurations. To address this gap, a laboratory study was conducted with 24 adult passengers at seat back angles from 23 to 53 degrees. Passenger preferences for head and neck posture with and without head support were recorded. This paper presents the characteristics of the passengers’ preferred head support with respect to thorax, head, and neck posture.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Static Autoignition Measurements to Estimate Intake Air Condition Requirements for Compression Ignition in a Multi-Mode Engine - Engine and RCM Experimental Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0957
A multi-mode operation strategy, wherein an engine operates compression ignited at low load and spark ignited at high load, is an attractive way of achieving better part-load efficiency in a light duty spark ignition (SI) engine. Given the sensitivity of compression ignition operation to in-cylinder conditions, one of the critical requirements in realizing such strategy in practice, is accurate control of intake charge conditions - pressure (P), temperature (T) and equivalence ratio (φ), in order to achieve stable combustion and enable rapid mode-switches. This paper presents the first of a two part study, correlating ignition delay data for five RON98 gasoline blends measured under engine-relevant operating conditions in a rapid compression machine (RCM), to the cylinder conditions obtained from a modern SI engine operated in compression ignition mode.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Static Autoignition Measurements to Estimate Intake Air Condition Requirements for Compression Ignition in a Multi-Mode Engine - Application of Chemical Kinetic Modeling

2019-04-02
2019-01-0955
A multi-mode operation strategy, wherein an engine operates compression ignited at low load and spark-ignited at high load, is an attractive way to achieve better part-load efficiency in light duty, spark-ignition (SI) engines, while maintaining robust operation and control across the operating map. Given the sensitivity of compression ignition operation to in-cylinder conditions, one of the critical requirements in realizing such a strategy in practice is accurate control of intake charge conditions - pressure, temperature, as well as fuel loading, to achieve stable combustion and enable rapid mode-switches. A reliable way of characterizing fuels under such operating schemes is key.
Technical Paper

On-Track Measurement of Road Load Changes in Two Close-Following Vehicles: Methods and Results

2019-04-02
2019-01-0755
As emerging automated vehicle technology is making advances in safety and reliability, engineers are also exploring improvements in energy efficiency with this new paradigm. Powertrain efficiency receives due attention, but also impactful is finding ways to reduce driving losses in coordinated-driving scenarios. Efforts focused on simulation to quantify road load improvements require a sufficient amount of background validation work to support them. This study uses a practical approach to directly quantify road load changes by testing the coordinated driving of two vehicles on a test track at various speeds (64, 88, 113 km/h) and vehicle time gaps (0.3 to 1.3 s). Axle torque sensors were used to directly measure the load required to maintain steady-state speeds while following a lead vehicle at various gap distances.
Technical Paper

FD&E Total Life T-Sample Residual Stress Analytical Predictions and Measured Results

2019-04-02
2019-01-0528
The Society of Automotive Engineers Fatigue Design & Evaluation Committee [SAE FD&E] is actively working on a total life project for weldments, in which the welding residual stress is a key contributor to an accurate assessment of fatigue life. Physics-based welding process simulation and various types of residual stress measurements were pursued to provide a representation of the residual stress field at the failure location in the fatigue samples. A well-controlled and documented robotic welding process was used for all sample fabrications to provide accurate inputs for the welding simulations. One destructive (contour method) residual stress measurement and several non-destructive residual stress measurements-surface X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD), and neutron diffraction (ND)-were performed on the same or similarly welded samples.
Technical Paper

Mixing-Limited Combustion of Alcohol Fuels in a Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0552
Diesel-fueled, heavy-duty engines are critical to global economies, but unfortunately they are currently coupled to the rising price and challenging emissions of Diesel fuel. Public awareness and increasingly stringent emissions standards have made Diesel OEMs consider possible alternatives to Diesel, including electrification, fuel cells, and spark ignition. While these technologies will likely find success in certain market segments, there are still many applications that will continue to require the performance and liquid-fueled simplicity of Diesel-style engines. Three-way catalysis represents a possible low-cost and highly-effective pathway to reducing Diesel emissions, but that aftertreatment system has typically been incompatible with Diesel operation due to the prohibitively high levels of soot formation at the required stoichiometric fuel-air ratios. This paper explores a possible method of integrating three-way catalysis with Diesel-style engine operation.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Thermal Efficiency of a Multi-Cylinder Heavy Duty Engine with E85 Gasoline Compression Ignition

2019-04-02
2019-01-0557
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) using a single gasoline-type fuel for direct/port injection has been shown as a method to achieve low-temperature combustion with low engine-out NOx and soot emissions and high indicated thermal efficiency. However, key technical barriers to achieving low temperature combustion on multi-cylinder engines include the air handling system (limited amount of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)) as well as mechanical engine limitations (e.g. peak pressure rise rate). In light of these limitations, high temperature combustion with reduced amounts of EGR appears more practical. Previous studies with 93 AKI gasoline demonstrated that the port and direct injection strategy exhibited the best performance, but the premature combustion event prevented further increase in the premixed gasoline fraction and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

2019-04-02
2019-01-1006
The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic bird’s eye view for warnings. Sixteen drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and dynamics of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking after receiving the warning, workload and subject preference.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

Surface Contamination Simulation for a Military Ground Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-1075
Vehicle surface contamination can degrade not only soldier vision but also the effectiveness of camera and sensor systems mounted externally on the vehicle for autonomy and situational awareness. In order to control vehicle surface contamination, a better understanding of dust particle generation, transport and accumulation is necessary. The focus of the present work is simulation of vehicle surface contamination on the rear part of the vehicle due to the interaction of the combat vehicle track with the ground and dust in the surrounding ambient atmosphere. A notional tracked military vehicle is used for the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. A CFD methodology with one-way-coupled Lagrangian particle modeling is used. The simulation is initially run with only air flow to solve the air pressure, velocity, and turbulence quantities in a steady state condition.
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