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Technical Paper

Vehicle Velocity Prediction and Energy Management Strategy Part 1: Deterministic and Stochastic Vehicle Velocity Prediction Using Machine Learning

There is a pressing need to develop accurate and robust approaches for predicting vehicle speed to enhance fuel economy/energy efficiency, drivability and safety of automotive vehicles. This paper details outcomes of research into various methods for the prediction of vehicle velocity. The focus is on short-term predictions over 1 to 10 second prediction horizon. Such short-term predictions can be integrated into a hybrid electric vehicle energy management strategy and have the potential to improve HEV energy efficiency. Several deterministic and stochastic models are considered in this paper for prediction of future vehicle velocity. Deterministic models include an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, a Nonlinear Auto-Regressive with eXternal input (NARX) shallow neural network and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep neural network. Stochastic models include a Markov Chain (MC) model and a Conditional Linear Gaussian (CLG) model.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Analysis of Periodic Cruise Control Strategies for Power-Split HEVs at Medium and Low Speed

Hybridization of vehicles is considered as the most promising technology for automakers and researchers, facing the challenge of optimizing both the fuel economy and emission of the road transport. Extensive studies have been performed on power-split hybrid electric vehicles (PS-HEVs). Despite of the fact that their excellent fuel economy performance in city driving conditions has been witnessed, a bottle neck for further improving the fuel economy of PS-HEVs has been encountered due to the inherent engine-generator-motor power circulation of the power-split system under medium-low speed cruising scenarios. Due to the special mechanical constraints of the power-split device (PSD), the conventional periodic cruising strategy like Pulse and Glide cannot be applied to PS-HEVs directly.
Journal Article

An Integrated Cooling System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors: Design and Simulation

Hybrid electric vehicles offer the advantages of reduced emissions and greater travel range in comparison to conventional and electric ground vehicles. Regardless of propulsion strategy, efficient cooling of electric motors remains an open challenge due to the operating cycles and ambient conditions. The onboard thermal management system must remove the generated heat so that the motors and other vehicle components operate within their designed temperature ranges. In this article, an integrated thermal structure, or cradle, is designed to efficiently transfer heat within the motor housing to the end plates for transmission to an external heat exchanger. A radial array of heat pipes function as an efficient thermal connector between the motor and heat connector, or thermal bus, depending on the configuration. Cooling performance has been evaluated for various driving cycles.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Drive Cycle Simulation of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter

A GT-SUITE vehicle-aftertreatment model has been developed to examine the cold-start emissions reduction capabilities of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter (VICC). This converter features a thermal management system to maintain the catalyst monolith above its light-off temperature between trips so that most of a vehicle’s cold-start exhaust emissions are avoided. The VICC thermal management system uses vacuum insulation around the monoliths. To further boost its heat retention capacity, a metal phase-change material (PCM) is packaged between the monoliths and vacuum insulation. To prevent overheating of the converter during periods of long, heavy engine use, a few grams of metal hydride charged with hydrogen are attached to the hot side of the vacuum insulation. The GT-SUITE model successfully incorporated the transient heat transfer effects of the PCM using the effective heat capacity method.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System - Nonlinear Controller Design

The components in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain include the battery pack, an internal combustion engine, and the electric machines such as motors and possibly a generator. These components generate a considerable amount of heat during driving cycles. A robust thermal management system with advanced controller, designed for temperature tracking, is required for vehicle safety and energy efficiency. In this study, a hybridized mid-size truck for military application is investigated. The paper examines the integration of advanced control algorithms to the cooling system featuring an electric-mechanical compressor, coolant pump and radiator fans. Mathematical models are developed to numerically describe the thermal behavior of these powertrain elements. A series of controllers are designed to effectively manage the battery pack, electric motors, and the internal combustion engine temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Optimization of the Traction Motor Design Based on the Series-HEV System Level Goals

The fidelity of the hybrid electric vehicle simulation is increased with the integration of a computationally-efficient finite-element based electric machine model, in order to address optimization of component design for system level goals. In-wheel electric motors are considered because of the off-road military application which differs significantly from commercial HEV applications. Optimization framework is setup by coupling the vehicle simulation to the constrained optimization solver. Utilizing the increased design flexibility afforded by the model, the solver is able to reshape the electric machine's efficiency map to better match the vehicle operation points. As the result, the favorable design of the e-machine is selected to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce cost, while satisfying performance constraints.
Technical Paper

Parametric Reduced-Order Models of Battery Pack Vibration Including Structural Variation and Pre-Stress Effects

The goal of this work is to develop an efficient numerical modeling method for the vibration of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery packs to support probabilistic forced response simulations and fatigue life predictions. There are two important sources of variations in HEV battery packs that affect their structural dynamic response. One source is the uncertain level of pre-stress due to bolts or welds used for joining cells within a pack. The other source is small structural variations among the cells of a battery pack. The structural dynamics of HEV battery packs are known to feature very high modal density in many frequency bands. That is because packs are composed of nominally identical cells. The high modal density combined with small, random structural variations among the cells can lead to drastic variations in the dynamic response compared with those of the ideal nominal system.
Journal Article

Frequency Domain Power Distribution Strategy for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Electrification and hybridization have great potential for improving fuel economy and reducing visual signature or soot emissions in military vehicles. Specific challenges related to military applications include severe duty cycles, large and uncertain energy flows through the system and high thermal loads. A novel supervisory control strategy is proposed to simultaneously mitigate severe engine transients and to reduce high electric current in the battery without oversizing the battery. The described objectives are accomplished by splitting the propulsion power demand through filtering in the frequency domain. The engine covers only low frequency power demand profile while the battery covers high frequency components. In the proposed strategy, the separation filter is systematically designed to identify different frequency components with the consideration of fuel consumption, aggressive engine transients, and battery electric loads.
Journal Article

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain and Control Strategy Optimization to Maximize the Synergy with a Gasoline HCCI Engine

This simulation study explores the potential synergy between the HCCI engine system and three hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations, and proposes the supervisory control strategy that maximizes the benefits of combining these two technologies. HCCI operation significantly improves fuel efficiency at part load, while hybridization aims to reduce low load/low speed operation. Therefore, a key question arises: are the effects of these two technologies additive or overlapping? The HEV configurations include two parallel hybrids with varying degrees of electrification, e.g. with a 5kW integrated starter/motor (“Mild”) and with a 10 kW electric machine (“Medium”), and a power-split hybrid. The engine is a dual-mode, SI-HCCI system and the engine map reflects the impact of HCCI on brake specific fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Behavior During Real-World 24-Hour Missions

This paper proposes a simulation based methodology to assess plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) behavior over 24-hour periods. Several representative 24-hour missions comprise naturalistic cycle data and information about vehicle resting time. The data were acquired during Filed Operational Tests (FOT) of a fleet of passenger vehicles carried out by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) for safety research. Then, PHEV behavior is investigated using a simulation with two different charging scenarios: (1) Charging overnight; (2) Charging whenever possible. Charging/discharging patterns of the battery as well as trends of charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes at each scenario were assessed. Series PHEV simulation is generated using Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and in-house Matlab codes.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Simulation of the Vehicle Cooling System for a Heavy Duty Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The cooling system of Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles (SHEVs) is more complicated than that of conventional vehicles due to additional components and various cooling requirements of different components. In this study, a numerical model of the cooling system for a SHEV is developed to investigate the thermal responses and power consumptions of the cooling system. The model is created for a virtual heavy duty tracked SHEV. The powertrain system of the vehicle is also modeled with Vehicle-Engine SIMulation (VESIM) previously developed by the Automotive Research Center at the University of Michigan. VESIM is used for the simulation of powertrain system behaviors under three severe driving conditions and during a realistic driving cycle. The output data from VESIM are fed into the cooling system simulation to provide the operating conditions of powertrain components.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Fluid Deaeration Device for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle System

The attractiveness of the hydraulic hybrid concept stems from the high power density and efficiency of the pump/motors and the accumulator. This is particularly advantageous in applications to heavy vehicles, as high mass translates into high rates of energy flows through the system. Using dry case hydraulic pumps further improves the energy conversion in the system, as they have 1-4% better efficiency than traditional wet-case pumps. However, evacuation of fluid from the case introduces air bubbles and it becomes imperative to address the deaeration problems. This research develops a bubble elimination efficiency testing apparatus (BEETA) to establish quantitative results characterizing bubble removal from hydraulic fluid in a cyclone deaeration device. The BEETA system mixes the oil and air according to predetermined ratio, passes the mixture through a cyclone deaeration device, and then measures the concentration of air in the exiting fluid.
Technical Paper

A Dual-Use Enterprise Context for Vehicle Design and Technology Valuation

Developing a new technology requires decision-makers to understand the technology's implications on an organization's objectives, which depend on user needs targeted by the technology. If these needs are common between two organizations, collaboration could result in more efficient technology development. For hybrid truck design, both commercial manufacturers and the military have similar performance needs. As the new technology penetrates the truck market, the commercial enterprise must quantify how the hybrid's superior fuel efficiency will impact consumer purchasing and, thus, future enterprise profits. The Army is also interested in hybrid technology as it continues its transformation to a more fuel-efficient force. Despite having different objectives, maximizing profit and battlefield performance, respectively, the commercial enterprise and Army can take advantage of their mutual needs.
Technical Paper

Control System Development for an Advanced-Technology Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck

The power management control system development and vehicle test results for a medium-duty hybrid electric truck are reported in this paper. The design procedure adopted is a model-based approach, and is based on the dynamic programming technique. A vehicle model is first developed, and the optimal control actions to maximize fuel economy are then obtained by the dynamic programming method. A near-optimal control strategy is subsequently extracted and implemented using a rapid-prototyping control development system, which provides a convenient environment to adjust the control algorithms and accommodate various I/O configurations. Dynamometer-testing results confirm that the proposed algorithm helps the prototype hybrid truck to achieve a 45% fuel economy improvement on the benchmark (non-hybrid) vehicle. It also compares favorably to a conventional rule-based control method, which only achieves a 31% fuel economy improvement on the same hybrid vehicle.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuel Consumption

Due to their inherent high efficiency and the ease of starting once the engine is hot, turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engines have emerged as one of the contending powerplants for PNGV hybrid vehicles. The interest in applying diesel engines in hybrid vehicles has prompted the modeling of direct injection diesel engine fuel consumption. The empirical equation developed in this study, which models engine friction and indicated efficiency as functions of engine operating speed and load, shows excellent agreement with test data gathered from public sources. The engine speed dependence of the friction and indicated efficiency are determined by fitting available data. Several assumed load dependences are considered. (If public data were available on engine cylinder pressure by crank angle as a function of engine speed and load, the load dependence could be determined empirically.)
Technical Paper

A Parallel Hybrid Automobile with Less Than 0.1 kWh of Energy Storage

The paper describes a new hybrid vehicle design option having very low energy storage capability, and in particular, a parallel hybrid with hydraulic storage and reapplication of braking energy. The operating efficiency of the propulsion system at light loads is substantially improved by splitting the engine into two segments, and finding ways of shutting down one or both engine segments whenever possible. The hybrid vehicle utilizes primarily current technologies. A diesel powered parallel hybrid as described demonstrates a reduction in fuel consumption of 53.9% on a volume basis when compared with an equivalent baseline vehicle.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Analysis for a Hybrid Concept Car Based on a Buffered Fuel-Engine Operating at an Optimal Point

A hybrid car is conceptually described and analyzed which meets the goal of a factor of three improvement in fuel economy set by the government-industry collaboration, Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, announced Sept. 29, 1993. This car combines an internal combustion engine with a low-energy, but high-power capacity, storage unit, such as a capacitor or flywheel. The storage capacity is one-half kWh. All energy requirements are ultimately met from the fuel tank. Essentially all the performance achievements of current conventional cars are met by this hybrid. Two versions of the hybrid are considered: one in which the vehicle loads are the same as those of the average 1993 car, but the drive train is replaced with a hybrid system, and one, where, in addition, the vehicle loads are reduced, at fixed performance and interior volume, to levels slightly beyond the best achievements in current production vehicles.