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Technical Paper

Transmission Shift Strategies for Electrically Supercharged Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0308
This work investigates the potential improvements in vehicle fuel economy possible by optimizing gear shift strategies to leverage a novel boosting device, an electrically assisted variable speed supercharger (EAVS), also referred to as a power split supercharger (PSS). Realistic gear shift strategies, resembling those commercially available, have been implemented to control upshift and downshift points based on torque request and engine speed. Using a baseline strategy from a turbocharged application of a MY2015 Ford Escape, a vehicle gas mileage of 34.4 mpg was achieved for the FTP75 drive cycle before considering the best efficiency regions of the supercharged engine.
Technical Paper

Infrared Borescopic Evaluation of High-Energy and Long-Duration Ignition Systems for Lean/Dilute Combustion in Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1149
Natural gas (NG) is attractive for heavy-duty (HD) engines for reasons of cost stability, emissions, and fuel security. NG cannot be reliably compression-ignited, but conventional gasoline ignition systems are not optimized for NG and are challenged to ignite mixtures that are lean or diluted with exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR). NG ignition is particularly challenging in large-bore engines, where completing combustion in the available time is more difficult. Using two high-speed infrared (IR) cameras with borescopic access to one cylinder of an HD NG engine, the effect of ignition system on the early flame-kernel development and cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) was investigated. Imaging in the IR yielded strong signals from water emission lines, which located the flame front and burned-gas regions and obviated image intensifiers. A 9.7-liter, six-cylinder engine was modified to enable exhaust-gas recirculation and to provide optical access.
Technical Paper

Voronoi Partitions for Assessing Fuel Consumption of Advanced Technology Engines: An Approximation of Full Vehicle Simulation on a Drive Cycle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0317
This paper presents a simple method of using Voronoi partitions for estimating vehicle fuel economy from a limited set of engine operating conditions. While one of the overarching goals of engine research is to continually improve vehicle fuel economy, evaluating the impact of a change in engine operating efficiency on the resulting fuel economy is a non-trivial task and typically requires drive cycle simulations with experimental data or engine model predictions and a full suite of engine controllers over a wide range of engine speeds and loads. To avoid the cost of collecting such extensive data, proprietary methods exist to estimate fuel economy from a limited set of engine operating conditions. This study demonstrates the use of Voronoi partitions to cluster and quantize the fuel consumed along a complex trajectory in speed and load to generate fuel consumption estimates based on limited simulation or experimental results.
Technical Paper

Cooling Parasitic Considerations for Optimal Sizing and Power Split Strategy for Military Robot Powered by Hydrogen Fuel Cells

2018-04-03
2018-01-0798
Military vehicles are typically armored, hence the open surface area for heat rejection is limited. Hence, the cooling parasitic load for a given heat rejection can be considerably higher and important to consider upfront in the system design. Since PEMFCs operate at low temp, the required cooling flow is larger to account for the smaller delta temperature to the air. This research aims to address the combined problem of optimal sizing of the lithium ion battery and PEM Fuel Cell stack along with development of the scalable power split strategy for small a PackBot robot. We will apply scalable physics-based models of the fuel cell stack and balance of plant that includes a realistic and scalable parasitic load from cooling integrated with existing scalable models of the lithium ion battery. This model allows the combined optimization that captures the dominant trends relevant to component sizing and system performance.
Journal Article

Assessing a Hybrid Supercharged Engine for Diluted Combustion Using a Dynamic Drive Cycle Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0969
This study uses full drive cycle simulation to compare the fuel consumption of a vehicle with a turbocharged (TC) engine to the same vehicle with an alternative boosting technology, namely, a hybrid supercharger, in which a planetary gear mechanism governs the power split to the supercharger between the crankshaft and a 48 V 5 kW electric motor. Conventional mechanically driven superchargers or electric superchargers have been proposed to improve the dynamic response of boosted engines, but their projected fuel efficiency benefit depends heavily on the engine transient response and driver/cycle aggressiveness. The fuel consumption benefits depend on the closed-loop engine responsiveness, the control tuning, and the torque reserve needed for each technology. To perform drive cycle analyses, a control strategy is designed that minimizes the boost reserve and employs high rates of combustion dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic and Practical Benefits of Waste Energy Recovery Using an Electric Turbo-Generator Under Different Boosting Methods

2018-04-03
2018-01-0851
This paper provides insight into the tradeoffs between exhaust energy recovery and increased pumping losses from the flow restriction of the electric turbo-generator (eTG) assessed using thermodynamic principles and with a detailed GT-Power engine model. The GT-Power engine model with a positive displacement expander model was used to predict the influence of back pressure on in-cylinder residuals and combustion. The eTG is assessed for two boosting arrangements: a conventional turbocharger (TC) and an electrically assisted variable speed (EAVS) supercharger (SC). Both a low pressure (post-turbine) and high pressure (pre-turbine) eTG are considered for the turbocharged configuration. The reduction in fuel consumption (FC) possible over various drive cycles is estimated based on the steady-state efficiency of frequently visited operating points assuming all recovered energy can be reused at an engine efficiency of 30% with 10% losses in the electrical path.
Technical Paper

Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

2017-11-17
2017-01-5020
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles. For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA.
Journal Article

Development of a Stationary Axle Efficiency Test Stand and Methodology for Identifying Fuel Efficient Gear Oils for Military Applications - Part 1

2017-03-28
2017-01-0889
For existing fleets such as the U.S. military ground vehicle fleet, there are few ways to reduce vehicle fuel consumption that don’t involve expensive retrofitting. Replacing standard lubricants with those that can achieve higher vehicle efficiencies is one practical and inexpensive way to improve fleet fuel efficiency. In an effort to identify axle gear lubricants that can reduce the fuel consumption of its fleet, the U.S. Army is developing a stationary axle efficiency test stand and procedure. In order to develop this capability, on-track vehicle fuel consumption testing was completed using light, medium, and heavy tactical wheeled vehicles following a modified SAE J1321 type test procedure. Tested lubricants included a baseline SAE 80W-90, a fuel efficient SAE 75W-90, and a fuel efficient SAE 75W-140. Vehicle testing resulted in reductions in fuel consumption of up to 2%.
Journal Article

Optimal Power Management of Vehicle Sourced Military Outposts

2017-03-28
2017-01-0271
This paper considers optimal power management during the establishment of an expeditionary outpost using battery and vehicle assets for electrical generation. The first step in creating a new outpost is implementing the physical protection and barrier system. Afterwards, facilities that provide communications, fires, meals, and moral boosts are implemented that steadily increase the electrical load while dynamic events, such as patrols, can cause abrupt changes in the electrical load profile. Being able to create a fully functioning outpost within 72 hours is a typical objective where the electrical power generation starts with batteries, transitions to gasoline generators and is eventually replaced by diesel generators as the outpost matures. Vehicles with power export capability are an attractive supplement to this electrical power evolution since they are usually on site, would reduce the amount of material for outpost creation, and provide a modular approach to outpost build-up.
Journal Article

Characterizing Factors Influencing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption for Vehicle Simulation in ALPHA

2017-03-28
2017-01-0533
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all energy flows in the model. In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been refined and revalidated using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. The robustness of EPA’s vehicle and engine testing for the MTE coupled with further validation of the ALPHA model has highlighted some areas where additional data can be used to add fidelity to the engine model within ALPHA.
Technical Paper

Literature Survey of Water Injection Benefits on Boosted Spark Ignited Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0658
The automotive industry has been witnessing a major shift towards downsized boosted direct injection engines due to diminishing petroleum reserves and increasingly stringent emission targets. Boosted engines operate at a high mean effective pressure (MEP), resulting in higher in-cylinder pressures and temperatures, effectively leading to increased possibility of abnormal combustion events like knock and pre-ignition. Therefore, the compression ratio and boost pressure in modern engines are restricted, which in-turn limits the engine efficiency and power. To mitigate conditions where the engine is prone to knocking, the engine control system uses spark retard and/or mixture enrichment, which decrease indicated work and increase specific fuel consumption. Several researchers have advocated water injection as an approach to replace or supplement existing knock mitigation techniques.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Post Injection Scheduling for Soot Reduction in a Light-Duty Turbodiesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0726
This experimental study involves optimization of the scheduling of diesel post injections to reduce soot emissions from a light-duty diesel engine. Previous work has shown that certain post injection schedules can reduce engine-out soot emissions when compared to conventional injection schedules for the same engine load. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of post injection scheduling for a range of engine conditions on a light duty multicylinder turbodiesel engine (1.9L GM ZDTH). For each engine operating condition, a test grid was developed so that only two variables (post injection duration and the commanded dwell time between main injection and post injection) were varied, with all other conditions held constant, in order to isolate the effects of the post injection schedule. Results have identified two distinct regimes of post injection schedules that reduce soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Pricing of Renewable Gasoline and Its Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Planning for Automakers and Electricity Generators

2016-04-05
2016-01-0295
With increasing evidence for climate change in response to greenhouse gasses (GHG) emitted by human activities, pressure is growing to reduce fuel consumption via increased vehicle efficiency and to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels. While real-world experience with bio-ethanol and a growing body of research on many other renewable fuel pathways provide some guidance as to the cost of renewable transportation fuel, there has been little work comparing that cost to alternative means for achieving equivalent GHG reductions. In earlier work, we developed an optimization model that allowed the transportation and electricity generation sectors to work separately or jointly to achieve GHG reduction targets, and showed that cooperation can significantly reduce the society cost of GHG reductions.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Optimal Strategies for Vehicle Supported Military Microgrids

2016-04-05
2016-01-0312
Vehicles with power exporting capability are microgrids since they possess electrical power generation, onboard loads, energy storage, and the ability to interconnect. The unique load and silent watch requirements of some military vehicles make them particularly well-suited to augment stationary power grids to increase power resiliency and capability. Connecting multiple vehicles in a peer-to-peer arrangement or to a stationary grid requires scalable power management strategies to accommodate the possibly large numbers of assets. This paper describes a military ground vehicle power management scheme for vehicle-to-grid applications. The particular focus is overall fuel consumption reduction of the mixed asset inventory of military vehicles with diesel generators typically used in small unit outposts.
Journal Article

Powerpack Optimal Design Methodology with Embedded Configuration Benchmarking

2016-04-05
2016-01-0313
Design of military vehicle needs to meet often conflicting requirements such as high mobility, excellent fuel efficiency and survivability, with acceptable cost. In order to reduce the development cost, time and associated risk, as many of the design questions as possible need to be addressed with advanced simulation tools. This paper describes a methodology to design a fuel efficient powerpack unit for a series hybrid electric military vehicle, with emphasis on the e-machine design. The proposed methodology builds on previously published Finite element based analysis to capture basic design features of the generator with three variables, and couples it with a model reduction technique to rapidly re-design the generator with desired fidelity. The generator is mated to an off the shelf engine to form a powerpack, which is subsequently evaluated over a representative military drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Extending the Dilution Limit of Spark Ignition Combustion via Fuel Injection during Negative Valve Overlap

2016-04-05
2016-01-0671
Using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a diluent instead of air allows the use of a conventional three-way catalyst for effective emissions reduction. Cooled EGR can also reduce fuel consumption and NOx emissions, but too much cool EGR leads to combustion instability and misfire. Negative valve overlap (NVO) is explored in the current work as an alternative method of dilution in which early exhaust valve closing causes combustion products to be retained in the cylinder and recompressed near top dead center, before being mixed with fresh charge during the intake stroke. The potential for fuel injection during NVO to extend the dilution limit of spark ignition combustion is evaluated in this work using experiments conducted on a 4-cylinder 2.0 L gasoline direct injection engine with variable intake and exhaust valve timing. The results demonstrate fuel injection during NVO can extend the dilution limit, improve brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and reduce CO and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Port Injection of Water into a DI Hydrogen Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0861
Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have potential for high thermal efficiencies; however, high efficiency conditions can produce high nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) that are challenging to treat using conventional 3-way catalysts. This work presents the results of an experimental study to reduce NOx emissions while retaining high thermal efficiencies in a single-cylinder research engine fueled with hydrogen. Specifically, the effects on engine performance of the injection of water into the intake air charge were explored. The hydrogen fuel was injected into the cylinder directly. Several parameters were varied during the study, including the amount of water injected into the intake charge, the amount of fuel injected, the phasing of the fuel injection, the number of fuel injection events, and the ignition timing. The results were compared with expectations for a conventionally operated hydrogen engine where load was controlled through changes in equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Direct In-cylinder Injection of Water into a PI Hydrogen Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0227
Injecting liquid water into a fuel/air charge is a means to reduce NOx emissions. Such strategies are particularly important to hydrogen internal combustion engines, as engine performance (e.g., maximum load) can be limited by regulatory limits on NOx. Experiments were conducted in this study to quantify the effects of direct injection of water into the combustion chamber of a port-fueled, hydrogen IC engine. The effects of DI water injection on NOx emissions, load, and engine efficiency were determined for a broad range of water injection timing. The amount of water injected was varied, and the results were compared with baseline data where no water injection was used. Water injection was a very effective means to reduce NOx emissions. Direct injection of water into the cylinder reduced NOx emissions by 95% with an 8% fuel consumption penalty, and NOx emissions were reduced by 85% without any fuel consumption penalty.
Journal Article

Frequency Domain Power Distribution Strategy for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1003
Electrification and hybridization have great potential for improving fuel economy and reducing visual signature or soot emissions in military vehicles. Specific challenges related to military applications include severe duty cycles, large and uncertain energy flows through the system and high thermal loads. A novel supervisory control strategy is proposed to simultaneously mitigate severe engine transients and to reduce high electric current in the battery without oversizing the battery. The described objectives are accomplished by splitting the propulsion power demand through filtering in the frequency domain. The engine covers only low frequency power demand profile while the battery covers high frequency components. In the proposed strategy, the separation filter is systematically designed to identify different frequency components with the consideration of fuel consumption, aggressive engine transients, and battery electric loads.
Technical Paper

Series Hydraulic Hybrid System for a Passenger Car: Design, Integration and Packaging Study

2012-04-16
2012-01-1031
This paper is on the development process of a hydraulic hybrid passenger vehicle. A subcompact passenger vehicle is chosen for modification into a series hydraulic hybrid with the aim of achieving a fuel economy of 100 MPG (2.35 L/100km) on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). This work develops a methodology for simultaneously designing a powertrain and power management strategy of a series hydraulic hybrid. The design process was initiated by developing a system level model validated using engine and hydraulic pump/motor testing by the US EPA at the National Vehicle and Fuel Efficiency Laboratory (NVFEL). Parametric studies were performed in order to determine the size of the pump/motors and accumulators. Several candidate engines were tested and the system models were used to determine which one could provide the best fuel economy while meeting performance constraints.
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