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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Diesel Engine with Variable Exhaust Valve Phasing for Fast SCR System Warm-Up

2019-04-02
2019-01-0584
Early exhaust valve opening (eEVO) increases the exhaust gas temperature by faster termination of the power stroke and is considered as a potential warm up strategy for diesel engines aftertreatment thermal management. In this study, first, it is shown that when eEVO is applied, the engine main variables such as the boost pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection (timing and quantity) must be re-calibrated to develop the required torque, avoid exceeding the exhaust temperature limits and keep the air fuel ratio sufficiently high. Then, a two-step procedure is presented to optimize the engine operation after the eEVO system is introduced, using a validated diesel engine model. In the first step, the engine variables are optimized at a constant eEVO shift. In the second step, optimal eEVO trajectories are calculated using Dynamic Programming (DP) for a transient test cycle.
Technical Paper

Study of Effects of Thermal Insulation Techniques on a Catalytic Converter for Reducing Cold Start Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1431
Previous work done at the University of Michigan shows the capability of the vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC) to retain heat during soak and the resulting benefits in reducing cold start emissions. This paper provides an improved version of the design which overcomes some of the shortcomings of the previous model and further improves the applicability and benefits of VICC. Also, newer materials have been evaluated and their effects on heat retention and emissions have studied using the 1-D after treatment model. Cold start emissions constitute around 60% to 80% of all the hydrocarbon and CO emissions in present day vehicles. The time taken to achieve the catalyst light-off temperature in a three-way catalytic converter significantly affects the emissions and fuel efficiency. The current work aims at developing a method to retain heat in catalytic converter, thus avoiding the need for light-off and reducing cold start emissions effectively.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Control of Engine Torque for Short-Circuit Flow and EGR Evacuation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0606
Low-Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-EGR) has been shown to be an effective means of improving fuel economy and suppressing knock in downsized, boosted, spark ignition engines. LP-EGR is particularly beneficial at low-speed, high-load conditions, but can lead to combustion instability at lower loads. The transport delays inherent in LP-EGR systems slow the reduction of intake manifold EGR concentrations during tip-out events, which may lead to excessive EGR concentrations at low load. This paper explores leveraging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) as a means of improving the rate of reduction of intake manifold EGR concentration prior to tip-out. At higher boost levels, high valve overlap may result in intake manifold gas passing directly to the exhaust manifold. This short-circuiting behaviour could potentially improve EGR evacuation rates.
Journal Article

Rapidly Pulsed Reductants in Diesel NOx Reduction by Lean NOx Traps: Effects of Mixing Uniformity and Reductant Type

2016-04-05
2016-01-0956
Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) are one type of lean NOx reduction technology typically used in smaller diesel passenger cars where urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems may be difficult to package . However, the performance of lean NOx traps (LNT) at temperatures above 400 C needs to be improved. The use of Rapidly Pulsed Reductants (RPR) is a process in which hydrocarbons are injected in rapid pulses ahead of a LNT in order to expand its operating window to higher temperatures and space velocities. This approach has also been called Di-Air (diesel NOx aftertreatment by adsorbed intermediate reductants) by Toyota. There is a vast parameter space which could be explored to maximize RPR performance and reduce the fuel penalty associated with injecting hydrocarbons. In this study, the mixing uniformity of the injected pulses, the type of reductant, and the concentration of pulsed reductant in the main flow were investigated.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Drive Cycle Simulation of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter

2016-04-05
2016-01-0967
A GT-SUITE vehicle-aftertreatment model has been developed to examine the cold-start emissions reduction capabilities of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter (VICC). This converter features a thermal management system to maintain the catalyst monolith above its light-off temperature between trips so that most of a vehicle’s cold-start exhaust emissions are avoided. The VICC thermal management system uses vacuum insulation around the monoliths. To further boost its heat retention capacity, a metal phase-change material (PCM) is packaged between the monoliths and vacuum insulation. To prevent overheating of the converter during periods of long, heavy engine use, a few grams of metal hydride charged with hydrogen are attached to the hot side of the vacuum insulation. The GT-SUITE model successfully incorporated the transient heat transfer effects of the PCM using the effective heat capacity method.
Technical Paper

Extending the Dilution Limit of Spark Ignition Combustion via Fuel Injection during Negative Valve Overlap

2016-04-05
2016-01-0671
Using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a diluent instead of air allows the use of a conventional three-way catalyst for effective emissions reduction. Cooled EGR can also reduce fuel consumption and NOx emissions, but too much cool EGR leads to combustion instability and misfire. Negative valve overlap (NVO) is explored in the current work as an alternative method of dilution in which early exhaust valve closing causes combustion products to be retained in the cylinder and recompressed near top dead center, before being mixed with fresh charge during the intake stroke. The potential for fuel injection during NVO to extend the dilution limit of spark ignition combustion is evaluated in this work using experiments conducted on a 4-cylinder 2.0 L gasoline direct injection engine with variable intake and exhaust valve timing. The results demonstrate fuel injection during NVO can extend the dilution limit, improve brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and reduce CO and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Influence of HCCI and SACI Combustion Modes on NH3 Generation and Subsequent Storage across a TWC-SCR System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0951
Advanced engine combustion strategies, such as HCCI and SACI, allow engines to achieve high levels of thermal efficiency with low levels of engine-out NOx emissions. To maximize gains in fuel efficiency, HCCI combustion is often run at lean operating conditions. However, lean engine operation prevents the conventional TWC after-treatment system from reaching legislated tailpipe emissions due to oxygen saturation. One potential solution for handling this challenge without the addition of costly NOx traps or on-board systems for urea injection is the passive TWC-SCR concept. This concept includes the integration of an SCR catalyst downstream of a TWC and the use of periods of rich or stoichiometric operation to generate NH3 over the TWC to be stored on the SCR catalyst until it is needed for NOx reduction during subsequent lean operation.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Vehicle Muffler Transmission Loss using Hybrid Method

2015-06-15
2015-01-2306
This study presents an efficient process to optimize the transmission loss of a vehicle muffler by using both experimental and analytical methods. Two production mufflers were selected for this study. Both mufflers have complex partitions and one of them was filled with absorbent fiberglass. CAD files of the mufflers were established for developing FEA models in ANSYS and another commercial software program (CFEA). FEA models were validated by experimental measurements using a two-source method. After the models were verified, sensitivity studies of design parameters were performed to optimize the transmission loss (TL) of both mufflers. The sensitivity study includes the perforated hole variations, partition variations and absorbent material insertion. The experimental and sensitivity analysis results are included in the paper.
Technical Paper

The Effects of CO, H2, and C3H6 on the SCR Reactions of an Fe Zeolite SCR Catalyst

2013-04-08
2013-01-1062
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts used in Lean NOx Trap (LNT) - SCR exhaust aftertreatment systems typically encounter alternating oxidizing and reducing environments. Reducing conditions occur when diesel fuel is injected upstream of a reformer catalyst, generating high concentrations of hydrogen (H₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons to deNOx the LNT. In this study, the functionality of an iron (Fe) zeolite SCR catalyst is explored with a bench top reactor during steady-state and cyclic transient SCR operation. Experiments to characterize the effect of an LNT deNOx event on SCR operation show that adding H₂ or CO only slightly changes SCR behavior with the primary contribution being an enhancement of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) decomposition into nitric oxide (NO). Exposure of the catalyst to C₃H₆ (a surrogate for an actual exhaust HC mixture) leads to a significant decrease in NOx reduction capabilities of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry Study of In-Cylinder Flows with Improved Dynamic Range

2013-04-08
2013-01-0542
Engine in-cylinder velocity measurements are necessary for the study of cycle-to-cycle variations and the effect of turbulence and air-fuel mixing on combustion. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) can provide measurements through the entire cycle, for multiple contiguous cycles. However, the PIV dynamic range, using a single spatial resolution and image separation, is insufficient to resolve the wide range of in-cylinder velocity and spatial scales encountered throughout the engine cycle. This paper discusses in-cylinder PIV data acquired with cycle resolution from the central tumble plane of a motored spark ignition optical engine using PIV image frame time separations (dts) that were dynamically varied as a function of crank angle. Also, two cameras with different magnifications were used to simultaneously acquire PIV images at high and low spatial resolution.
Journal Article

Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures with the Linear Traction Stress Analysis Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0524
Structural stress methods are now widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures and structures with stress concentrations. The structural stress concept is based on the assumption of a global stress distribution at critical locations such as weld toes or weld throats, and there are several variants of structural stress approaches available. In this paper, the linear traction stress approach, a nodal force based structural stress approach, is reviewed first. The linear traction stress approach offers a robust procedure for extracting linear traction stress components by post-processing the finite element analysis results at any given hypothetical crack location of interest. Pertinent concepts such as mesh-insensitivity, master S-N curve, fatigue crack initiation and growth mechanisms are also discussed.
Technical Paper

A LNT+SCR System for Treating the NOx Emissions from a Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0210
An aftertreatment system involving a LNT followed by a SCR catalyst is proposed for treating the NOx emissions from a diesel engine. NH3 (or urea) is injected between the LNT and the SCR. The SCR is used exclusively below 400°C due to its high NOx activity at low temperatures and due to its ability to store and release NH3 below 400°C, which helps to minimize NH3 and NOx slip. Above 400°C, where the NH3 storage capacity of the SCR falls to low levels, the LNT is used to store the NOx. A potassium-based LNT is utilized due to its high temperature NOx storage capability. Periodically, hydrocarbons are oxidized on the LNT under net lean conditions to promote the thermal release of the NOx. NH3 is injected simultaneously to reduce the released NOx over the SCR. The majority of the hydrocarbons are oxidized on the front portion of the LNT, resulting in the rapid release of stored NOx from that portion of the LNT.
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Neural Networks for Representing the Air Flow Rate through a 2.4 Liter VVT Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-3054
The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller.
Technical Paper

Effect of Exhaust Valve Timing on Gasoline Engine Performance and Hydrocarbon Emissions

2004-10-25
2004-01-3058
Despite remarkable progress made over the past 30 years, automobiles continue to be a major source of hydrocarbon emissions. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether variable exhaust valve opening (EVO) and exhaust valve closing (EVC) can be used to reduce hydrocarbon emissions. An automotive gasoline engine was tested with different EVO and EVC timings under steady-state and start-up conditions. The first strategy that was evaluated uses early EVO with standard EVC. Although exhaust gas temperature is increased and catalyst light-off time is reduced, the rapid drop in cylinder temperature increases cylinder-out hydrocarbons to such a degree that a net increase in hydrocarbon emissions results. The second strategy that was evaluated uses early EVO with early EVC. Early EVO reduces catalyst light-off time by increasing exhaust gas temperature and early EVC keeps the hydrocarbon-rich exhaust gas from the piston crevice from leaving the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Modeling HCCI Combustion With High Levels of Residual Gas Fraction - A Comparison of Two VVA Strategies

2003-10-27
2003-01-3220
Adjusting the Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) by means of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) is a strong candidate for controlling the ignition timing in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. However, at high levels of residual gas fraction, insufficient mixing can lead to the presence of considerable temperature and composition variations. This paper extends previous modeling efforts to include the effect of RGF distribution on the onset of ignition and the rate of combustion using a multi-dimensional fluid mechanics code (KIVA-3V) sequentially with a multi-zone code with detailed chemical kinetics. KIVA-3V is used to simulate the gas exchange processes, while the multi-zone code computes the combustion event. It is shown that under certain conditions the effect of composition stratification is significant and cannot be captured by a single-zone model or a multi-zone model using only temperature zones.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Modeling the Effects of Gas Exchange Processes on HCCI Combustion and Its Application in Evaluating Variable Valve Timing Control Strategies

2002-10-21
2002-01-2829
The present study introduces a modeling approach for investigating the effects of valve events and gas exchange processes in the framework of a full-cycle HCCI engine simulation. A multi-dimensional fluid mechanics code, KIVA-3V, is used to simulate exhaust, intake and compression up to a transition point, before which chemical reactions become important. The results are then used to initialize the zones of a multi-zone, thermo-kinetic code, which computes the combustion event and part of the expansion. After the description and the validation of the model against experimental data, the application of the method is illustrated in the context of variable valve actuation. It has been shown that early exhaust valve closing, accompanied by late intake valve opening, has the potential to provide effective control of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

A Fuel Rate Based Catalyst Pass Fraction Model for Predicting Tailpipe NOx Emissions from a Composite Car

1999-03-01
1999-01-0455
Modeling tailpipe NOx emissions has always been difficult due to the complexity of the numerous factors involved in the catalytic conversion of the pollutant. Most emissions modeling has been based on steady state driving. A parameterized algebraic model for second-by-second tailpipe emissions of NOx for a composite Tier 1 car is presented employing data from the Federal Test Procedure Revision Project (FTPRP). Calculating fuel rate from measured engine out values, the catalytic converter is physically modeled based on the fuel rate history and a few fitted parameters. Under certain conditions, the changes in fuel rate are related to trends in the air to fuel ratio. The model accurately predicts the time dependence of hot stabilized tailpipe NOx emissions in the FTP bag 3 and US06 driving cycles. Modeling of low power driving, as in bag 2, is not as successful.
Technical Paper

A Global Model for Steady State and Transient S.I. Engine Heat Transfer Studies

1996-02-01
960073
A global, systems-level model which characterizes the thermal behavior of internal combustion engines is described in this paper. Based on resistor-capacitor thermal networks, either steady-state or transient thermal simulations can be performed. A two-zone, quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation is used to determine in-cylinder gas temperature and convection coefficients. Engine heat fluxes and component temperatures can subsequently be predicted from specification of general engine dimensions, materials, and operating conditions. Emphasis has been placed on minimizing the number of model inputs and keeping them as simple as possible to make the model practical and useful as an early design tool. The success of the global model depends on properly scaling the general engine inputs to accurately model engine heat flow paths across families of engine designs. The development and validation of suitable, scalable submodels is described in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

Theoretical, Computational and Experimental Investigation of Helmholtz Resonators: One-Dimensional versus Multi-Dimensional Approach

1994-03-01
940612
Helmholtz resonators are widely used for the noise reduction in vehicle induction and exhaust systems. This study investigates the effect of specific cavity dimensions of these resonators theoretically, computationally and experimentally. By considering one-dimensional wave propagation through distributed masses in the connector and cavity, a closed-form expression for the transmission loss of axisymmetric configurations is presented, thereby partially eliminating the limitations of a lumped-parameter analysis. Eight resonators of fixed neck geometry and cavity volume with length-to-diameter ratios of the volume varying from 0.32 to 23.92 are studied both computationally and experimentally. The first of the two computational approaches employed in the study implements a finite difference time domain technique to solve the nonlinear governing equations of one-dimensional compressible flow.
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