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Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Elastically Supported Plate due to Excitation of a Turbulent Boundary Layer

2019-06-05
2019-01-1470
High-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are an important source for inducing structural vibration. Small geometric features of a structure can generate significant turbulence that result in structural vibration. In this work we develop a new method to couple a high-fidelity fluid solver with a dynamic hybrid analytical-numerical formulation for the structure. The fluid solver uses the Large-Eddy Simulation closure for the unresolved turbulence. Specifically, a local and dynamic one-equation eddy viscosity model is employed. The fluid pressure fluctuation on the structure is mapped to the dynamic structural model. The plate where the flow excitation is applied is considered as part of a larger structure. A hybrid approach based on the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) is used for developing the new hybrid formulation. The dynamic behavior of the plate which is excited by the flow is modeled using finite elements.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Diesel Engine with Variable Exhaust Valve Phasing for Fast SCR System Warm-Up

2019-04-02
2019-01-0584
Early exhaust valve opening (eEVO) increases the exhaust gas temperature by faster termination of the power stroke and is considered as a potential warm up strategy for diesel engines aftertreatment thermal management. In this study, first, it is shown that when eEVO is applied, the engine main variables such as the boost pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection (timing and quantity) must be re-calibrated to develop the required torque, avoid exceeding the exhaust temperature limits and keep the air fuel ratio sufficiently high. Then, a two-step procedure is presented to optimize the engine operation after the eEVO system is introduced, using a validated diesel engine model. In the first step, the engine variables are optimized at a constant eEVO shift. In the second step, optimal eEVO trajectories are calculated using Dynamic Programming (DP) for a transient test cycle.
Technical Paper

Influence of Early and Late Fuel Injection on Air Flow Structure and Kinetic Energy in an Optical SIDI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0205
The turbulent in-cylinder air flow and the unsteady high-pressure fuel injection lead to a highly transient air fuel mixing process in spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines, which is the leading cause for combustion cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) and requires further investigation. In this study, crank-angle resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) was employed to simultaneously measure the air flow and fuel spray structure at 1300 rpm in an optically accessible single-cylinder SIDI engine. The measurement was conducted at the center tumble plane of the four-valve pent-roof engine, bisecting the spark plug and fuel injector. 84 consecutive cycles were recorded for three engine conditions, i.e. (1) none-fueled motored condition, (2) homogeneous-charge mode with start of injection (SOI) during intake (50 crank-angle degree (CAD) after top dead center exhaust, aTDCexh), and (3) stratified-charge mode with SOI during mid compression (270 aTDCexh).
Technical Paper

Simulation of Flow Control Devices in Support of Vehicle Drag Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0713
Flow control devices can enable vehicle drag reduction through the mitigation of separation and by modifying local and global flow features. Passive vortex generators (VG) are an example of a flow control device that can be designed to re-energize weakly-attached boundary layers to prevent or minimize separation regions that can increase drag. Accurate numerical simulation of such devices and their impact on the vehicle aerodynamics is an important step towards enabling automated drag reduction and shape optimization for a wide range of vehicle concepts. This work demonstrates the use of an open-source computational-fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to enable an accurate and robust evaluation of passive vortex generators in support of vehicle drag reduction. Specifically, the backlight separation of the Ahmed body with a 25° slant is used to evaluate different turbulence models including variants of the RANS, DES, and LES formulations.
Technical Paper

Two-Point Spatial Velocity Correlations in the Near-Wall Region of a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0613
Developing a complete understanding of the structure and behavior of the near-wall region (NWR) in reciprocating, internal combustion (IC) engines and of its interaction with the core flow is needed to support the implementation of advanced combustion and engine operation strategies, as well as predictive computational models. The NWR in IC engines is fundamentally different from the canonical steady-state turbulent boundary layers (BL), whose structure, similarity and dynamics have been thoroughly documented in the technical literature. Motivated by this need, this paper presents results from the analysis of two-component velocity data measured with particle image velocimetry near the head of a single-cylinder, optical engine. The interaction between the NWR and the core flow was quantified via statistical moments and two-point velocity correlations, determined at multiple distances from the wall and piston positions.
Journal Article

An EGR Cooler Fouling Model: Experimental Correlation and Model Uses

2017-03-28
2017-01-0535
Thermal effectiveness of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers used in diesel engines can progressively decrease and stabilize over time due to inner fouling layer of the cooler tubes. Thermophoretic force has been identified as the major cause of diesel exhaust soot fouling, and models are proposed in the literature but improvements in simulation are needed especially for the long-term trend of soot deposition. To describe the fouling stabilization behavior, a removal mechanism is required to account for stabilization of the soot layer. Observations from previous experiments on surrogate circular tubes suggest there are three primary factors to determine removal mechanisms: surface temperature, thickness, and shear velocity. Based on this hypothesis, we developed a 1D CFD fouling model for predicting the thermal effectiveness reduction of real EGR coolers. The model includes the two competing mechanisms mentioned that results in fouling balance.
Technical Paper

Emissions Modeling of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine for Model-Based Control Design Using Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks

2017-03-28
2017-01-0601
The development of advanced model-based engine control strategies, such as economic model predictive control (eMPC) for diesel engine fuel economy and emission optimization, requires accurate and low-complexity models for controller design validation. This paper presents the NOx and smoke emissions modeling of a light duty diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and a high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. Such emission models can be integrated with an existing air path model into a complete engine mean value model (MVM), which can predict engine behavior at different operating conditions for controller design and validation before physical engine tests. The NOx and smoke emission models adopt an artificial neural network (ANN) approach with Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) architectures. The networks are trained and validated using experimental data collected from engine bench tests.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Post Injection Scheduling for Soot Reduction in a Light-Duty Turbodiesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0726
This experimental study involves optimization of the scheduling of diesel post injections to reduce soot emissions from a light-duty diesel engine. Previous work has shown that certain post injection schedules can reduce engine-out soot emissions when compared to conventional injection schedules for the same engine load. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of post injection scheduling for a range of engine conditions on a light duty multicylinder turbodiesel engine (1.9L GM ZDTH). For each engine operating condition, a test grid was developed so that only two variables (post injection duration and the commanded dwell time between main injection and post injection) were varied, with all other conditions held constant, in order to isolate the effects of the post injection schedule. Results have identified two distinct regimes of post injection schedules that reduce soot emissions.
Journal Article

The Effects of Temperature, Shear Stress, and Deposit Thickness on EGR Cooler Fouling Removal Mechanism - Part 2

2016-04-05
2016-01-0186
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are used on diesel engines to reduce peak in-cylinder flame temperatures, leading to less NOx formation during the combustion process. There is an ongoing concern with soot and hydrocarbon fouling inside the cold surface of the cooler. The fouling layer reduces the heat transfer efficiency and causes pressure drop to increase across the cooler. A number of experimental studies have demonstrated that the fouling layer tends to asymptotically approach a critical height, after which the layer growth ceases. One potential explanation for this behavior is the removal mechanism derived by the shear force applied on the soot and hydrocarbon deposit surface. As the deposit layer thickens, shear force applied on the fouling surface increases due to the flow velocity growth. When a critical shear force is applied, deposit particles start to get removed.
Technical Paper

Design Environment for Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-0627
Model Predictive Control (MPC) design methods are becoming popular among automotive control researchers because they explicitly address an important challenge faced by today’s control designers: How does one realize the full performance potential of complex multi-input, multi-output automotive systems while satisfying critical output, state and actuator constraints? Nonlinear MPC (NMPC) offers the potential to further improve performance and streamline the development for those systems in which the dynamics are strongly nonlinear. These benefits are achieved in the MPC framework by using an on-line model of the controlled system to generate the control sequence that is the solution of a constrained optimization problem over a receding horizon.
Technical Paper

Comparison of High- and Low-Pressure Electric Supercharging of a HDD Engine: Steady State and Dynamic Air-Path Considerations

2016-04-05
2016-01-1035
This paper numerically investigates the performance implications of the use of an electric supercharger in a heavy-duty DD13 diesel engine. Two electric supercharger configurations are examined. The first is a high-pressure (HP) configuration where the supercharger is placed after the turbocharger compressor, while the second is a low-pressure (LP) one, where the supercharger is placed before the turbocharger compressor. At steady state, high engine speed operation, the airflows of the HP and LP implementations can vary by as much as 20%. For transient operation under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) heavy duty diesel (HDD) engine transient drive cycle, supercharging is required only at very low engine speeds to improve airflow and torque. Under the low speed transient conditions, both the LP and HP configurations show similar increases in torque response so that there are 44 fewer engine cycles at the smoke-limit relative to the baseline turbocharged engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Quench Rate of AA7075

2014-04-01
2014-01-0984
The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 has the potential to be used for structural automotive body components as an alternative to boron steel. Although this alloy shows poor formability at room temperature, it has been demonstrated that hot stamping is a feasible sheet metal process that can be used to overcome the forming issues. Hot stamping is an elevated temperature forming operation in which a hot blank is formed and quenched within a stamping die. Attaining a high quench rate is a critical step of the hot stamping process and corresponds to maximum strength and corrosion resistance. This work looks at measuring the quench rate of AA7075-T6 by way of three different approaches: water, a water-cooled plate, and a bead die. The water-cooled plate and the bead die are laboratory-scale experimental setups designed to replicate the hot stamping/die quenching process.
Technical Paper

Impact of Supplemental Natural Gas on Engine Efficiency, Performance, and Emissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0847
In this study, the performance and emissions of a 4 cylinder 2.5L light-duty diesel engine with methane fumigation in the intake air manifold is studied to simulate a dual fuel conversion kit. Because the engine control unit is optimized to work with only the diesel injection into the cylinder, the addition of methane to the intake disrupts this optimization. The energy from the diesel fuel is replaced with that from the methane by holding the engine load and speed constant as methane is added to the intake air. The pilot injection is fixed and the main injection is varied in increments over 12 crank angle degrees at these conditions to determine the timing that reduces each of the emissions while maintaining combustion performance as measured by the brake thermal efficiency. It is shown that with higher substitution the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions can increase by up to twenty times. The NOx emissions decrease for all engine conditions, up to 53%.
Technical Paper

Computational Investigation of the Stratification Effects on DI/HCCI Engine Combustion at Low Load Conditions

2009-11-02
2009-01-2703
A numerical study has been conducted to investigate possible extension of the low load limit of the HCCI operating range by charge stratification using direct injection. A wide range of SOI timings at a low load HCCI engine operating condition were numerically examined to investigate the effect of DI. A multidimensional CFD code KIVA3v with a turbulent combustion model based on a modified flamelet approach was used for the numerical study. The CFD code was validated against experimental data by comparing pressure traces at different SOI’s. A parametric study on the effect of SOI on combustion has been carried out using the validated code. Two parameters, the combustion efficiency and CO emissions, were chosen to examine the effect of SOI on combustion, which showed good agreement between numerical results and experiments. Analysis of the in-cylinder flow field was carried out to identify the source of CO emissions at various SOI’s.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Journal Article

Premixed Low Temperature Combustion of Biodiesel and Blends in a High Speed Compression Ignition Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0133
The effects of combining premixed, low temperature combustion (LTC) with biodiesel are relatively unknown to this point. This mode allows simultaneously low soot and NOx emissions by using high rates of EGR and increasing ignition delay. This paper compares engine performance and emissions of neat, soy-based methyl ester biodiesel (B100), B20, B50, pure ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a Swedish, low aromatic diesel in a multi-cylinder diesel engine operating in a late-injection premixed LTC mode. Using heat release analysis, the progression of LTC combustion was explored by comparing fuel mass fraction burned. B100 had a comparatively long ignition delay compared with Swedish diesel when measured by start of ignition (SOI) to 10% fuel mass fraction burned (CA10). Differences were not as apparent when measured by SOI to start of combustion (SOC) even though their cetane numbers are comparable.
Journal Article

Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter in EGR Cooler Deposits: Effects of Gas Flow Rate, Coolant Temperature, and Oxidation Catalyst

2008-10-06
2008-01-2467
Compact heat exchangers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases, resulting in decreased NOx emissions. These exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers experience fouling through deposition of particulate matter (PM) and hydrocarbons (HCs) that reduces the effectiveness of the cooler. Surrogate tubes have been used to investigate the impacts of gas flow rate and coolant temperature on the deposition of PM and HCs. The results indicate that mass deposition is lowest at high flow rates and high coolant temperatures. An oxidation catalyst was investigated and proved to effectively reduce deposition of HCs, but did not reduce overall mass deposition to near-zero levels. Speciation of the deposit HCs showed that a range of HCs from C15 - C25 were deposited and retained in the surrogate tubes.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of NOX and Soot in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Instantaneous Mixing of Fuel and Water

2007-04-16
2007-01-0125
Meeting diesel engine emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles can be achieved by simultaneous injection of fuel and water. An injection system for instantaneous mixing of fuel and water in the combustion chamber has been developed by injecting water in a mixing passage located in the periphery of the fuel spray. The fuel spray is then entrained by water and hot air before it burns. The experimental work was carried out on a Rapid Compression Machine and on a Komatsu direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. It was also supported by Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the injection and combustion processes in order to evaluate the effect of water vapor distribution on cylinder temperature and NOX formation. It has been concluded that when the water injection is appropriately timed, the combustion speed is slower and the cylinder temperature lower than in conventional diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

The Development of Throttled and Unthrottled PCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0202
Present-day implementations of premixed compression ignition low temperature (PCI) combustion in diesel engines use higher levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) than conventional diesel combustion. Two common devices that can be used to achieve high levels of EGR are an intake throttle and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). Because the two techniques affect the engine air system in different ways, local combustion conditions differ between the two in spite of, in some cases, having similar burn patterns in the form of heat release. The following study has developed from this and other observations; observations which necessitate a deeper understanding of emissions formation within the PCI combustion regime. This paper explains, through the use of fundamental phenomenological observations, differences in ignition delay and emission indices of particulate matter (EI-PM) and nitric oxides (EI-NOx) from PCI combustion attained via the two different techniques to flow EGR.
Technical Paper

Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Engine and DOC Utilizing Conventional and PCI Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0201
Premixed compression ignition low-temperature diesel combustion (PCI) can simultaneously reduce particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions increase relative to conventional diesel combustion, however, which may necessitate the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). For a better understanding of conventional and PCI combustion, and the operation of a platinum-based production DOC, engine-out and DOC-out exhaust hydrocarbons are speciated using gas chromatography. As combustion mode is changed from lean conventional to lean PCI to rich PCI, engine-out CO and THC emissions increase significantly. The relative contributions of individual species also change; increasing methane/THC, acetylene/THC and CO/THC ratios indicate a richer combustion zone and a reduction in engine-out hydrocarbon incremental reactivity.
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