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Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Elastically Supported Plate due to Excitation of a Turbulent Boundary Layer

2019-06-05
2019-01-1470
High-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are an important source for inducing structural vibration. Small geometric features of a structure can generate significant turbulence that result in structural vibration. In this work we develop a new method to couple a high-fidelity fluid solver with a dynamic hybrid analytical-numerical formulation for the structure. The fluid solver uses the Large-Eddy Simulation closure for the unresolved turbulence. Specifically, a local and dynamic one-equation eddy viscosity model is employed. The fluid pressure fluctuation on the structure is mapped to the dynamic structural model. The plate where the flow excitation is applied is considered as part of a larger structure. A hybrid approach based on the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) is used for developing the new hybrid formulation. The dynamic behavior of the plate which is excited by the flow is modeled using finite elements.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Modeling and Optimization of a Submarine Pressure Hull

2019-06-05
2019-01-1498
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been validated in the past through comparison with test data for computing the structural vibration and the radiated noise for Naval systems in the mid to high frequency range. A main benefit of the method is that it enables fast computations for full scale models. This capability is exploited by using the EFEA for a submarine pressure hull design optimization study. A generic but representative pressure hull is considered. Design variables associated with the dimensions of the king frames, the thickness of the pressure hull in the vicinity of the excitation (the latter is considered to be applied on the king frames of the machinery room), the dimensions of the frames, and the damping applied on the hull are adjusted during the optimization process in order to minimize the radiated noise in the frequency range from 1,000Hz to 16,000Hz.
Technical Paper

Comfortable Head and Neck Postures in Reclined Seating for Use in Automobile Head Rest Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-0408
Little information is available on passenger preferences for posture and support in highly reclined seat configurations. To address this gap, a laboratory study was conducted with 24 adult passengers at seat back angles from 23 to 53 degrees. Passenger preferences for head and neck posture with and without head support were recorded. This paper presents the characteristics of the passengers’ preferred head support with respect to thorax, head, and neck posture.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Velocity Prediction and Energy Management Strategy Part 2: Integration of Machine Learning Vehicle Velocity Prediction with Optimal Energy Management to Improve Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1212
An optimal energy management strategy (Optimal EMS) can yield significant fuel economy (FE) improvements without vehicle velocity modifications. Thus it has been the subject of numerous research studies spanning decades. One of the most challenging aspects of an Optimal EMS is that FE gains are typically directly related to high fidelity predictions of future vehicle operation. In this research, a comprehensive dataset is exploited which includes internal data (CAN bus) and external data (radar information and V2V) gathered over numerous instances of two highway drive cycles and one urban/highway mixed drive cycle. This dataset is used to derive a prediction model for vehicle velocity for the next 10 seconds, which is a range which has a significant FE improvement potential. This achieved 10 second vehicle velocity prediction is then compared to perfect full drive cycle prediction, perfect 10 second prediction.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Flow Control Devices in Support of Vehicle Drag Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0713
Flow control devices can enable vehicle drag reduction through the mitigation of separation and by modifying local and global flow features. Passive vortex generators (VG) are an example of a flow control device that can be designed to re-energize weakly-attached boundary layers to prevent or minimize separation regions that can increase drag. Accurate numerical simulation of such devices and their impact on the vehicle aerodynamics is an important step towards enabling automated drag reduction and shape optimization for a wide range of vehicle concepts. This work demonstrates the use of an open-source computational-fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to enable an accurate and robust evaluation of passive vortex generators in support of vehicle drag reduction. Specifically, the backlight separation of the Ahmed body with a 25° slant is used to evaluate different turbulence models including variants of the RANS, DES, and LES formulations.
Technical Paper

In-Vehicle Occupant Head Tracking Using aLow-Cost Depth Camera

2018-04-03
2018-01-1172
Analyzing dynamic postures of vehicle occupants in various situations is valuable for improving occupant accommodation and safety. Accurate tracking of an occupant’s head is of particular importance because the head has a large range of motion, controls gaze, and may require special protection in dynamic events including crashes. Previous vehicle occupant posture studies have primarily used marker-based optical motion capture systems or multiple video cameras for tracking facial features or markers on the head. However, the former approach has limitations for collecting on-road data, and the latter is limited by requiring intensive manual postprocessing to obtain suitable accuracy. This paper presents an automated on-road head tracking method using a single Microsoft Kinect V2 sensor, which uses a time-of-flight measurement principle to obtain a 3D point cloud representing objects in the scene at approximately 30 Hz.
Technical Paper

Influence of Early and Late Fuel Injection on Air Flow Structure and Kinetic Energy in an Optical SIDI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0205
The turbulent in-cylinder air flow and the unsteady high-pressure fuel injection lead to a highly transient air fuel mixing process in spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines, which is the leading cause for combustion cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) and requires further investigation. In this study, crank-angle resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) was employed to simultaneously measure the air flow and fuel spray structure at 1300 rpm in an optically accessible single-cylinder SIDI engine. The measurement was conducted at the center tumble plane of the four-valve pent-roof engine, bisecting the spark plug and fuel injector. 84 consecutive cycles were recorded for three engine conditions, i.e. (1) none-fueled motored condition, (2) homogeneous-charge mode with start of injection (SOI) during intake (50 crank-angle degree (CAD) after top dead center exhaust, aTDCexh), and (3) stratified-charge mode with SOI during mid compression (270 aTDCexh).
Journal Article

Optimization of an Advanced Combustion Strategy Towards 55% BTE for the Volvo SuperTruck Program

2017-03-28
2017-01-0723
This paper describes a novel design and verification process for analytical methods used in the development of advanced combustion strategies in internal combustion engines (ICE). The objective was to improve brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as part of the US Department of Energy SuperTruck program. The tools and methods herein discussed consider spray formation and injection schedule along with piston bowl design to optimize combustion efficiency, air utilization, heat transfer, emission, and BTE. The methodology uses a suite of tools to optimize engine performance, including 1D engine simulation, high-fidelity CFD, and lab-scale fluid mechanic experiments. First, a wide range of engine operating conditions are analyzed using 1-D engine simulations in GT Power to thoroughly define a baseline for the chosen advanced engine concept; secondly, an optimization and down-select step is completed where further improvements in engine geometries and spray configurations are considered.
Technical Paper

Two-Point Spatial Velocity Correlations in the Near-Wall Region of a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0613
Developing a complete understanding of the structure and behavior of the near-wall region (NWR) in reciprocating, internal combustion (IC) engines and of its interaction with the core flow is needed to support the implementation of advanced combustion and engine operation strategies, as well as predictive computational models. The NWR in IC engines is fundamentally different from the canonical steady-state turbulent boundary layers (BL), whose structure, similarity and dynamics have been thoroughly documented in the technical literature. Motivated by this need, this paper presents results from the analysis of two-component velocity data measured with particle image velocimetry near the head of a single-cylinder, optical engine. The interaction between the NWR and the core flow was quantified via statistical moments and two-point velocity correlations, determined at multiple distances from the wall and piston positions.
Technical Paper

Design Environment for Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-0627
Model Predictive Control (MPC) design methods are becoming popular among automotive control researchers because they explicitly address an important challenge faced by today’s control designers: How does one realize the full performance potential of complex multi-input, multi-output automotive systems while satisfying critical output, state and actuator constraints? Nonlinear MPC (NMPC) offers the potential to further improve performance and streamline the development for those systems in which the dynamics are strongly nonlinear. These benefits are achieved in the MPC framework by using an on-line model of the controlled system to generate the control sequence that is the solution of a constrained optimization problem over a receding horizon.
Journal Article

Powerpack Optimal Design Methodology with Embedded Configuration Benchmarking

2016-04-05
2016-01-0313
Design of military vehicle needs to meet often conflicting requirements such as high mobility, excellent fuel efficiency and survivability, with acceptable cost. In order to reduce the development cost, time and associated risk, as many of the design questions as possible need to be addressed with advanced simulation tools. This paper describes a methodology to design a fuel efficient powerpack unit for a series hybrid electric military vehicle, with emphasis on the e-machine design. The proposed methodology builds on previously published Finite element based analysis to capture basic design features of the generator with three variables, and couples it with a model reduction technique to rapidly re-design the generator with desired fidelity. The generator is mated to an off the shelf engine to form a powerpack, which is subsequently evaluated over a representative military drive cycles.
Journal Article

Optimization of Spatially Varying Fiber Paths for a Symmetric Laminate with a Circular Cutout under Remote Uniaxial Tension

2015-09-15
2015-01-2609
Minimizing the stress concentrations around cutouts in a plate is often a design problem, especially in the Aerospace industry. A problem of optimizing spatially varying fiber paths in a symmetric, linear orthotropic composite laminate with a cutout, so as to achieve minimum stress concentration under remote unidirectional tensile loading is of interest in this study. A finite element (FE) model is developed to this extent, which constraints the fiber angles while optimizing the fiber paths, proving essential in manufacturing processes. The idea to be presented could be used to derive fiber paths that would drastically reduce the Stress Concentration Factor (SCF) in a symmetric laminate by using spatially varying fibers in place of unidirectional fibers. The model is proposed for a four layer symmetric laminate, and can be easily reproduced for any number of layers.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Vehicle Muffler Transmission Loss using Hybrid Method

2015-06-15
2015-01-2306
This study presents an efficient process to optimize the transmission loss of a vehicle muffler by using both experimental and analytical methods. Two production mufflers were selected for this study. Both mufflers have complex partitions and one of them was filled with absorbent fiberglass. CAD files of the mufflers were established for developing FEA models in ANSYS and another commercial software program (CFEA). FEA models were validated by experimental measurements using a two-source method. After the models were verified, sensitivity studies of design parameters were performed to optimize the transmission loss (TL) of both mufflers. The sensitivity study includes the perforated hole variations, partition variations and absorbent material insertion. The experimental and sensitivity analysis results are included in the paper.
Journal Article

Launch Performance Optimization of GTDI-DCT Powertrain

2015-04-14
2015-01-1111
A direct trajectory optimization approach is developed to assess the capability of a GTDI-DCT Powertrain, with a Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine and Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT), to satisfy stringent drivability requirements during launch. The optimization is performed directly on a high fidelity black box powertrain model for which a single simulation of a launch event takes about 8 minutes. To address this challenging problem, an efficient parameterization of the control trajectory using Gaussian kernel functions and a Mesh Adaptive Direct Search optimizer are exploited. The results and observations are reported for the case of clutch torque optimization for launch at normal conditions, at high altitude conditions and at non-zero grade conditions. The results and observations are also presented for the case of simultaneous optimization of multiple actuator trajectories at normal conditions.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Optimization of the Traction Motor Design Based on the Series-HEV System Level Goals

2014-04-01
2014-01-1801
The fidelity of the hybrid electric vehicle simulation is increased with the integration of a computationally-efficient finite-element based electric machine model, in order to address optimization of component design for system level goals. In-wheel electric motors are considered because of the off-road military application which differs significantly from commercial HEV applications. Optimization framework is setup by coupling the vehicle simulation to the constrained optimization solver. Utilizing the increased design flexibility afforded by the model, the solver is able to reshape the electric machine's efficiency map to better match the vehicle operation points. As the result, the favorable design of the e-machine is selected to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce cost, while satisfying performance constraints.
Journal Article

In-Vehicle Driver State Detection Using TIP-II

2014-04-01
2014-01-0444
A transportable instrumentation package to collect driver, vehicle and environmental data is described. This system is an improvement on an earlier system and is called TIP-II [13]. Two new modules were designed and added to the original system: a new and improved physiological signal module (PH-M) replaced the original physiological signals module in TIP, and a new hand pressure on steering wheel module (HP-M) was added. This paper reports on exploratory tests with TIP-II. Driving data were collected from ten driver participants. Correlations between On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD), video data, physiological data and specific driver behavior such as lane departure and car following were investigated. Initial analysis suggested that hand pressure, skin conductance level, and respiration rate were key indicators of lane departure lateral displacement and velocity, immediately preceding lane departure; heart rate and inter-beat interval were affected during lane changes.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Quench Rate of AA7075

2014-04-01
2014-01-0984
The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 has the potential to be used for structural automotive body components as an alternative to boron steel. Although this alloy shows poor formability at room temperature, it has been demonstrated that hot stamping is a feasible sheet metal process that can be used to overcome the forming issues. Hot stamping is an elevated temperature forming operation in which a hot blank is formed and quenched within a stamping die. Attaining a high quench rate is a critical step of the hot stamping process and corresponds to maximum strength and corrosion resistance. This work looks at measuring the quench rate of AA7075-T6 by way of three different approaches: water, a water-cooled plate, and a bead die. The water-cooled plate and the bead die are laboratory-scale experimental setups designed to replicate the hot stamping/die quenching process.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Verity and Volvo Methods for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2013-09-24
2013-01-2357
Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly predict the durability and reliability of vehicles in the early development stage, especially for welded joints, which are usually the weakest locations in a vehicle system. A reliable and validated life assessment method is needed to accurately predict how and where a welded part fails, while iterative testing is expensive and time consuming. Recently, structural stress methods based on nodal force/moment are becoming widely accepted in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. There are several variants of structural stress approaches available and two of the most popular methods being used in automotive industry are the Volvo method and the Verity method. Both methods are available in commercial software and some concepts and procedures related the nodal force/moment have already been included in several engineering codes.
Journal Article

The Influence of Road Surface Properties on Vehicle Suspension Parameters Optimized for Ride - Design Trends for Global Markets

2012-04-16
2012-01-0521
Suspension design is influenced by many factors, especially by vehicle dynamics performance in ride, handling and durability. In the global automotive industry it is common to “customize” or tune suspension parameters so that a vehicle is more acceptable to a different customer base and in a different driving environment. This paper seeks to objectively quantify certain aspects of tuning via ride optimization, taking account of market differences in road surface spectral properties and loading conditions. A computationally efficient methodology for suspension optimization is developed using stochastic techniques. A small (B-class) vehicle is chosen for the study and the following main suspension parameters are selected for optimization - spring stiffness, damping rate and vertical tire stiffness. The road is characterized as a stationary random process, using scaling and shaping filters representative of comparable roads in India and the USA.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Real-World Driving Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0840
This paper proposes a framework to perform design optimization of a series PHEV and investigates the impact of using real-world driving inputs on final design. Real-World driving is characterized from a database of naturalistic driving generated in Field Operational Tests. The procedure utilizes Markov chains to generate synthetic drive cycles representative of real-world driving. Subsequently, PHEV optimization is performed in two steps. First the optimal battery and motor sizes to most efficiently achieve a desired All Electric Range (AER) are determined. A synthetic cycle representative of driving over a given range is used for function evaluations. Then, the optimal engine size is obtained by considering fuel economy in the charge sustaining (CS) mode. The higher power/energy demands of real-world cycles lead to PHEV designs with substantially larger batteries and engines than those developed using repetitions of the federal urban cycle (UDDS).
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