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Technical Paper

The Influence of the Operating Duty Cycles on the Composition of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits of Industrial Diesel Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-1164
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in On-road and Off- road diesel engines to reduce the re-circulated gas temperature in order to reduce NOx emissions. One of the common performance behaviors for EGR coolers in use on diesel engines is a reduction of the heat exchanger effectiveness, mainly due to particulate matter (PM) deposition and condensation of hydrocarbons (HC) from the diesel exhaust on the inside walls of the EGR cooler. According to previous studies, typically, the effectiveness decreases rapidly initially, then asymptotically stabilizes over time. Prior work has postulated a deposit removal mechanism to explain this stabilization phenomenon. In the present study, five field aged EGR cooler samples that were used on construction machines for over 10000 hours were analyzed in order to understand the deposit structure as well as the deposit composition after long duration use.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Injection (DI + PFI) for Knock and EGR Dilution Limit Extension in a Boosted SI Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1735
Combined direct and port fuel injection (i.e., dual injection) in spark ignition engines is of increasing interest due to the advantages for fuel flexibility and the individual merits of each system for improving engine performance and reducing engine-out emissions. Greater understanding of the impact of dual injection will enable deriving the maximum benefit from the two injection systems. This study investigates the effects of dual injection on combustion, especially knock propensity and tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) dilution at different levels of EGR. A baseline for comparison with dual injection results was made using direct injection fueling only. A splash blended E20 fuel was used for the direct injection only tests. For the dual injection tests, gasoline, representing 80% by volume of the total fuel, was injected using the direct injector, and ethanol, representing 20% by volume of the total fuel, was injected using the port fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Study of Effects of Thermal Insulation Techniques on a Catalytic Converter for Reducing Cold Start Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1431
Previous work done at the University of Michigan shows the capability of the vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC) to retain heat during soak and the resulting benefits in reducing cold start emissions. This paper provides an improved version of the design which overcomes some of the shortcomings of the previous model and further improves the applicability and benefits of VICC. Also, newer materials have been evaluated and their effects on heat retention and emissions have studied using the 1-D after treatment model. Cold start emissions constitute around 60% to 80% of all the hydrocarbon and CO emissions in present day vehicles. The time taken to achieve the catalyst light-off temperature in a three-way catalytic converter significantly affects the emissions and fuel efficiency. The current work aims at developing a method to retain heat in catalytic converter, thus avoiding the need for light-off and reducing cold start emissions effectively.
Journal Article

Effect of Syngas (H2/CO) on SI Engine Knock under Boosted EGR and Lean Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0670
Syngas (synthesis gas) aided combustion from various fuel reforming strategies is of increasing interest in boosted lean burn SI engines due to its impact on dilution tolerance and knock resistance. Due to the interest in reformed fuels, more concrete understanding of how to leverage syngas supplementation under various lean conditions is essential to optimize engine performance and derive the most benefit from the availability of syngas in the combustion process. While the impact of syngas supplementation on combustion stability has been studied adequately, detailed understanding of the impact of syngas on knocking is still limited. Hence, this study investigates the effect of syngas (H2/CO) addition on knock tendency under boosted EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and air diluted conditions. Syngas amount is controlled on an energy basis from 0% to 15% to compare the difference between EGR and air dilution.
Journal Article

An EGR Cooler Fouling Model: Experimental Correlation and Model Uses

2017-03-28
2017-01-0535
Thermal effectiveness of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers used in diesel engines can progressively decrease and stabilize over time due to inner fouling layer of the cooler tubes. Thermophoretic force has been identified as the major cause of diesel exhaust soot fouling, and models are proposed in the literature but improvements in simulation are needed especially for the long-term trend of soot deposition. To describe the fouling stabilization behavior, a removal mechanism is required to account for stabilization of the soot layer. Observations from previous experiments on surrogate circular tubes suggest there are three primary factors to determine removal mechanisms: surface temperature, thickness, and shear velocity. Based on this hypothesis, we developed a 1D CFD fouling model for predicting the thermal effectiveness reduction of real EGR coolers. The model includes the two competing mechanisms mentioned that results in fouling balance.
Journal Article

The Effects of Temperature, Shear Stress, and Deposit Thickness on EGR Cooler Fouling Removal Mechanism - Part 2

2016-04-05
2016-01-0186
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are used on diesel engines to reduce peak in-cylinder flame temperatures, leading to less NOx formation during the combustion process. There is an ongoing concern with soot and hydrocarbon fouling inside the cold surface of the cooler. The fouling layer reduces the heat transfer efficiency and causes pressure drop to increase across the cooler. A number of experimental studies have demonstrated that the fouling layer tends to asymptotically approach a critical height, after which the layer growth ceases. One potential explanation for this behavior is the removal mechanism derived by the shear force applied on the soot and hydrocarbon deposit surface. As the deposit layer thickens, shear force applied on the fouling surface increases due to the flow velocity growth. When a critical shear force is applied, deposit particles start to get removed.
Journal Article

The Effects of Temperature, Shear Stress, and Deposit Thickness on EGR Cooler Fouling Removal Mechanism - Part 1

2016-04-05
2016-01-0183
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel and modern gasoline engines to reduce the re-circulated gas temperature. A common problem with the EGR cooler is a reduction of the effectiveness due to the fouling layer primarily caused by thermophoresis, diffusion, and hydrocarbon condensation. Typically, effectiveness decreases rapidly at first, and asymptotically stabilizes over time. There are several hypotheses of this stabilizing phenomenon; one of the possible theories is a deposit removal mechanism. Verifying such a mechanism and finding out the correlation between the removal and stabilization tendency would be a key factor to understand and overcome the problem. Some authors have proposed that the removal is a possible influential factor, while other authors suggest that removal is not a significant factor under realistic conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of EGR Cooler Fouling on a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1090
Cooled EGR provides benefits in better fuel economy and lower emissions by reducing knocking tendency and decreasing peak cylinder temperature in gasoline engines. However, GDI engines have high particle emissions due to limited mixing of fuel and air, and these particle emissions can be a major source of EGR cooler fouling. In order to improve our knowledge of GDI engine EGR cooler fouling, the effects of tube geometry and coolant temperature on EGR cooler performance and degradation were studied using a four cylinder 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine. In addition, deposit microstructure was analyzed to explore the nature of deposits formed under GDI engine operation. The results of this study showed that a dented tube geometry was more effective in cooling the exhaust gas than a smooth tube due to its large surface area and turbulent fluid motion. However, more deposits were accumulated and higher effectiveness loss was observed in the dented tube.
Technical Paper

The Effects of CO, H2, and C3H6 on the SCR Reactions of an Fe Zeolite SCR Catalyst

2013-04-08
2013-01-1062
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts used in Lean NOx Trap (LNT) - SCR exhaust aftertreatment systems typically encounter alternating oxidizing and reducing environments. Reducing conditions occur when diesel fuel is injected upstream of a reformer catalyst, generating high concentrations of hydrogen (H₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons to deNOx the LNT. In this study, the functionality of an iron (Fe) zeolite SCR catalyst is explored with a bench top reactor during steady-state and cyclic transient SCR operation. Experiments to characterize the effect of an LNT deNOx event on SCR operation show that adding H₂ or CO only slightly changes SCR behavior with the primary contribution being an enhancement of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) decomposition into nitric oxide (NO). Exposure of the catalyst to C₃H₆ (a surrogate for an actual exhaust HC mixture) leads to a significant decrease in NOx reduction capabilities of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Journal Article

Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling

2008-10-06
2008-01-2475
The buildup of deposits in EGR coolers causes significant degradation in heat transfer performance, often on the order of 20-30%. Deposits also increase pressure drop across coolers and thus may degrade engine efficiency under some operating conditions. It is unlikely that EGR cooler deposits can be prevented from forming when soot and HC are present. The presence of cooled surfaces will cause thermophoretic soot deposition and condensation of HC and acids. While this can be affected by engine calibration, it probably cannot be eliminated as long as cooled EGR is required for emission control. It is generally felt that “dry fluffy” soot is less likely to cause major fouling than “heavy wet” soot. An oxidation catalyst in the EGR line can remove HC and has been shown to reduce fouling in some applications. The combination of an oxidation catalyst and a wall-flow filter largely eliminates fouling. Various EGR cooler designs affect details of deposit formation.
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