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Technical Paper

Design of Experiments for Effects and Interactions during Brake Emissions Testing Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-09-15
2019-01-2139
The investigation and measurement of particle emissions from foundation brakes require the use of a special adaptation of inertia dynamometer test systems. To have proper measurements for particle mass and particle number, the sampling system needs to minimize transport losses and reduce residence times inside the brake enclosure. Existing models and spreadsheets estimate key transport losses (diffusion, turbophoretic, contractions, gravitational, bends, and sampling isokinetics). A significant limitation of such models is that they cannot assess the turbulent flow and associated particle dynamics inside the brake enclosure; which are anticipated to be important. This paper presents a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow within a dynamometer enclosure under relevant operating conditions. The systematic approach allows the quantification of turbulence intensity, mean velocity profiles, and residence times.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Finite Element and Hybrid Finite Element Results to Test Data for the Vibration of a Production Car Body

2019-06-05
2019-01-1530
The Hybrid Finite Element Analysis (HFEA) method is based on combining conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solutions and energy methods for mid-frequency computations. The method is appropriate for computing the vibration of structures which are comprised by stiff load bearing components and flexible panels attached to them; and for considering structure-borne loadings with the excitations applied on the load bearing members. In such situations, the difficulty in using conventional FEA at higher frequencies originates from requiring a very large number of elements in order to capture the flexible wavelength of the panel members which are present in a structure. In the HFEA the conventional FEA model is modified by de-activating the bending behavior of the flexible panels in the FEA computations and introducing instead a large number of dynamic impedance elements for representing the omitted bending behavior of the panels.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Elastically Supported Plate due to Excitation of a Turbulent Boundary Layer

2019-06-05
2019-01-1470
High-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are an important source for inducing structural vibration. Small geometric features of a structure can generate significant turbulence that result in structural vibration. In this work we develop a new method to couple a high-fidelity fluid solver with a dynamic hybrid analytical-numerical formulation for the structure. The fluid solver uses the Large-Eddy Simulation closure for the unresolved turbulence. Specifically, a local and dynamic one-equation eddy viscosity model is employed. The fluid pressure fluctuation on the structure is mapped to the dynamic structural model. The plate where the flow excitation is applied is considered as part of a larger structure. A hybrid approach based on the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) is used for developing the new hybrid formulation. The dynamic behavior of the plate which is excited by the flow is modeled using finite elements.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Modeling and Optimization of a Submarine Pressure Hull

2019-06-05
2019-01-1498
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been validated in the past through comparison with test data for computing the structural vibration and the radiated noise for Naval systems in the mid to high frequency range. A main benefit of the method is that it enables fast computations for full scale models. This capability is exploited by using the EFEA for a submarine pressure hull design optimization study. A generic but representative pressure hull is considered. Design variables associated with the dimensions of the king frames, the thickness of the pressure hull in the vicinity of the excitation (the latter is considered to be applied on the king frames of the machinery room), the dimensions of the frames, and the damping applied on the hull are adjusted during the optimization process in order to minimize the radiated noise in the frequency range from 1,000Hz to 16,000Hz.
Technical Paper

A Methodology of Design for Fatigue Using an Accelerated Life Testing Approach with Saddlepoint Approximation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0159
We present an Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) methodology along with a design for fatigue approach, using Gaussian or non-Gaussian excitations. The accuracy of fatigue life prediction at nominal loading conditions is affected by model and material uncertainty. This uncertainty is reduced by performing tests at a higher loading level, resulting in a reduction in test duration. Based on the data obtained from experiments, we formulate an optimization problem to calculate the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) values of the uncertain model parameters. In our proposed ALT method, we lift all the assumptions on the type of life distribution or the stress-life relationship and we use Saddlepoint Approximation (SPA) method to calculate the fatigue life Probability Density Functions (PDFs).
Technical Paper

Transmission Shift Strategies for Electrically Supercharged Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0308
This work investigates the potential improvements in vehicle fuel economy possible by optimizing gear shift strategies to leverage a novel boosting device, an electrically assisted variable speed supercharger (EAVS), also referred to as a power split supercharger (PSS). Realistic gear shift strategies, resembling those commercially available, have been implemented to control upshift and downshift points based on torque request and engine speed. Using a baseline strategy from a turbocharged application of a MY2015 Ford Escape, a vehicle gas mileage of 34.4 mpg was achieved for the FTP75 drive cycle before considering the best efficiency regions of the supercharged engine.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Effect of Initialization Errors for Enabling Accurate Online Drivetrain Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-0347
Simulations conducted on-board in a vehicle control module can offer valuable information to control strategies. Continued improvements to on-board computing hardware make online simulations of complex dynamic systems such as drivetrains within reach. This capability enables predictions of the system response to various control actions and disturbances. Implementation of online simulations requires model initialization that is consistent with the physical drivetrain state. However, sensor signals and estimated variables are susceptible to errors, compromising the accuracy of the initialization and any future state predictions as the simulation proceeds through the numerical integration process. This paper describes a drivetrain modeling and analysis method that accounts for initialization errors, thereby enabling accurate simulations of system behaviors.
Technical Paper

Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0399
There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility.
Technical Paper

Development of an Automated Seat Dimension Evaluation System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0401
The dimensions of an automobile seat are important factors affecting a driver’s seating comfort, fit, and satisfaction. In this regard, seat engineers put forth tremendous efforts to evaluate the dimensions of a product seat until the dimensions are consistent with the design reference in a computer aided design (CAD). However, the existing evaluation process is heavily reliant on seat engineers’ manual tasks which are highly repetitive, labor intensive, and time-demanding tasks. The objective of this study is to develop an automated system that can efficiently and accurately evaluate seat products by comparing estimated seat dimensions from a CAD model or a 3D scan model. By using the developed system, the evaluation time for comparing 18 seat dimensions on CAD and scan models has been substantially reduced to less than one minute, which is 99% time saving compared to two hours in the manual process.
Technical Paper

Comfortable Head and Neck Postures in Reclined Seating for Use in Automobile Head Rest Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-0408
Little information is available on passenger preferences for posture and support in highly reclined seat configurations. To address this gap, a laboratory study was conducted with 24 adult passengers at seat back angles from 23 to 53 degrees. Passenger preferences for head and neck posture with and without head support were recorded. This paper presents the characteristics of the passengers’ preferred head support with respect to thorax, head, and neck posture.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

2019-04-02
2019-01-1006
The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic bird’s eye view for warnings. Sixteen drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and dynamics of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking after receiving the warning, workload and subject preference.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

Surface Contamination Simulation for a Military Ground Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-1075
Vehicle surface contamination can degrade not only soldier vision but also the effectiveness of camera and sensor systems mounted externally on the vehicle for autonomy and situational awareness. In order to control vehicle surface contamination, a better understanding of dust particle generation, transport and accumulation is necessary. The focus of the present work is simulation of vehicle surface contamination on the rear part of the vehicle due to the interaction of the combat vehicle track with the ground and dust in the surrounding ambient atmosphere. A notional tracked military vehicle is used for the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. A CFD methodology with one-way-coupled Lagrangian particle modeling is used. The simulation is initially run with only air flow to solve the air pressure, velocity, and turbulence quantities in a steady state condition.
Technical Paper

Closed-Form Structural Stress Solutions for Spot Welds in Square Plates under Central Bending Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1114
A new closed-form structural stress solution for a spot weld in a square thin plate under central bending conditions is derived based on the thin plate theory. The spot weld is treated as a rigid inclusion and the plate is treated as a thin plate. The boundary conditions follow those of the published solution for a rigid inclusion in a square plate under counter bending conditions. The new closed-form solution indicates that structural stress solution near the rigid inclusion on the surface of the plate along the symmetry plane is larger than those for a rigid inclusion in an infinite plate and a finite circular plate with pinned and clamped outer boundaries under central bending conditions. When the radius distance becomes large and approaches to the outer boundary, the new analytical stress solution approaches to the reference stress whereas the other analytical solutions do not.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-1076
Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analyses of Structural Stresses near Dissimilar Spot Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens

2019-04-02
2019-01-1112
Structural stress distributions near nearly rigid, dissimilar and similar spot joints in lap-shear specimens are investigated by 3-D finite element analyses. A set of accurate closed-form structural stress solutions is first presented. The closed-form structural stress solutions were derived for a rigid inclusion in a square thin plate under various loading conditions with the weak boundary conditions along outer edges or semi-circular paths by satisfying the equilibrium conditions. Finite element analyses with different joint material behaviors, element types and mesh designs are conducted to examine the structural stress solutions near the spot joints in lap-shear specimens. The results of the finite element analyses indicate that the computational structural stress solutions on the edge of the joint depend on the joint material behavior, element type, and mesh design.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Velocity Prediction and Energy Management Strategy Part 1: Deterministic and Stochastic Vehicle Velocity Prediction Using Machine Learning

2019-04-02
2019-01-1051
There is a pressing need to develop accurate and robust approaches for predicting vehicle speed to enhance fuel economy/energy efficiency, drivability and safety of automotive vehicles. This paper details outcomes of research into various methods for the prediction of vehicle velocity. The focus is on short-term predictions over 1 to 10 second prediction horizon. Such short-term predictions can be integrated into a hybrid electric vehicle energy management strategy and have the potential to improve HEV energy efficiency. Several deterministic and stochastic models are considered in this paper for prediction of future vehicle velocity. Deterministic models include an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, a Nonlinear Auto-Regressive with eXternal input (NARX) shallow neural network and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep neural network. Stochastic models include a Markov Chain (MC) model and a Conditional Linear Gaussian (CLG) model.
Technical Paper

Research on the Driving Stability Control System of the Dual-Motor Drive Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0436
In order to improve the steering stability of the dual-motor drive electric vehicle, Taking the yaw rate and the sideslip angle as the control variables, Using the improved two degree of freedom linear dynamic model and seven degree of freedom nonlinear vehicle dynamics model, The hierarchical structure is used to establish the dual-motor drive electric vehicle steering stability control strategy which consist of the upper direct yaw moment decision-making layer based on the sliding mode controller and the lower additional yaw moment distribution layer based on the optimization theory. The Matlab/Simulink-Carsim joint simulation platform was built. The control strategy proposed in this paper was simulated and verified under the snake test condition and double-line shift test condition.
Technical Paper

Survey of Automotive Privacy Regulations and Privacy-Related Attacks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0479
Privacy has been a rising concern. The European Union has established a privacy standard called General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in May 2018. Furthermore, the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data incident made headlines in March 2018. Data collection from vehicles by OEM platforms is increasingly popular and may offer OEMs new business models but it comes with the risk of privacy leakages. Vehicular sensor data shared with third-parties can lead to misuse of the requested data for other purposes than stated/intended. There exists a relevant regulation document introduced by the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (“Auto Alliance”), which classifies the vehicular sensors used for data collection as covered and non-sensitive parameters.
Technical Paper

Analyzing and Preventing Data Privacy Leakage in Connected Vehicle Services

2019-04-02
2019-01-0478
The rapid development of connected and automated vehicle technologies together with cloud-based mobility services are revolutionizing the transportation industry. As a result, huge amounts of data are being generated, collected, and utilized, hence providing tremendous business opportunities. However, this big data poses serious challenges mainly in terms of data privacy. The risks of privacy leakage are amplified by the information sharing nature of emerging mobility services and the recent advances in data analytics. In this paper, we provide an overview of the connected vehicle landscape and point out potential privacy threats. We demonstrate two of the risks, namely additional individual information inference and user de-anonymization, through concrete attack designs. We also propose corresponding countermeasures to defend against such privacy attacks. We evaluate the feasibility of such attacks and our defense strategies using real world vehicular data.
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