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Journal Article

Mechanical Behavior and Failure Mechanism of Nb-Clad Stainless Steel Sheets

2009-04-20
2009-01-1393
Because niobium-clad 304L stainless steel sheets are considered for use as bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, their mechanical behavior and failure mechanism are important to be examined. As-rolled and annealed specimens were tested in tension, bending and flattening. The effects of annealing temperature and time on the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism were investigated. Micrographic analyses of bent and flattened specimens showed that the as-rolled specimens have limited ductility and that the annealed specimens can develop an intermetallic layer of thickness of a few microns. The annealed specimens failed due to the breakage of intermetallic layer causing localized necking and the subsequent failure of Nb layer. The springback angles of the as-rolled and annealed specimens were also obtained from guided-bend tests.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Dissimilar Spot Friction Welds between Aluminum and Coated Steel Sheets in Lap-Shear and Cross-Tension Specimens

2009-04-20
2009-01-0036
Fatigue behavior of dissimilar Al/Fe spot friction welds between aluminum 6000 series alloy and coated steel sheets in lap-shear and cross-tension specimens is investigated based on experiments and three-dimensional finite element analyses. Micrographs of the welds after failure under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions show that the Al/Fe welds in lap-shear and cross-tension specimens failed along the interfacial surface. Three-dimensional finite element analyses based on the micrographs of the welds before testing were conducted to obtain the J-integral solutions at the critical locations of the welds under lap-shear and cross-tension loading conditions. The numerical results suggest that the J-integral solutions at the critical locations of the welds can be used as a fracture mechanics parameter to correlate the experimental fatigue data of the Al/Fe spot friction welds in lap-shear and cross-tension specimens.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Laser Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) Steels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0028
Fatigue behavior of laser welds in lap-shear specimens of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels is investigated based on a fatigue crack growth model. Fatigue experiments of laser welded lap-shear specimens were conducted. Analytical global stress intensity factor solutions are developed and compared with finite element computational results. A fatigue crack growth model based on the analytical local stress intensity factor solutions of kinked cracks and the Paris law for crack growth is then adopted to estimate the fatigue lives of the laser welds under cyclic loading conditions. The estimated fatigue lives are compared with the experimental results. The results indicate that the fatigue life predictions based on the fatigue crack growth model are slightly longer than the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Analytic Solution of Mode I Stress Intensity Factor for Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens

2006-04-03
2006-01-0535
The analytic solution of the mode I stress intensity factor for spot welds in lap-shear specimens is investigated based on the classical Kirchhoff plate theory for linear elastic materials. Approximate closed-form solutions for a finite square plate containing a rigid inclusion under counter bending conditions are first derived. Based on the J integral, the closed-form structural stress solution is used to develop the analytic solution of the mode I stress intensity factor for spot welds in lap-shear specimens of finite size. Finally, the analytic solution of the mode I stress intensity factor based on the stress solution for a finite square plate with an inclusion is compared with the results of the three-dimensional finite element computations for lap-shear specimens with various ratios of the specimen half width to the nugget radius.
Technical Paper

Microstructures and Failure Mechanisms of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 5754 Sheets

2005-04-11
2005-01-1256
Microstructures and failure mechanisms of spot friction welds (SFW) in aluminum 5754 lap-shear specimens were investigated. In order to study the effect of tool geometry on the joint strength of spot friction welds, a concave tool and a flat tool were used. In order to understand the effect of tool penetration depth on the joint strength, spot friction welds were prepared with two different penetration depths for each tool. The results indicated that the concave tool produced slightly higher joint strength than the flat tool. The joint strength did not change for the two depths for the flat tool whereas the joint strength slightly increases as the penetration depth increases for the concave tool. The experimental results show that the failure mechanism is necking and shearing for the spot friction welds made by both tools. The failure was initiated and fractured through the upper sheet under the shoulder indentation near the crack tip.
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