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Technical Paper

A Study of Age-Related Thoracic Injury in Frontal Crashes using Analytic Morphomics

The purpose of this study was to use detailed medical information to evaluate thoracic injuries in elderly patients in real world frontal crashes. In this study, we used analytic morphomics to predict the effect of torso geometry on rib fracture, a major source of injury for the elderly. Analytic morphomics extracts body features from computed tomography (CT) scans of patients in a semi-automated fashion. Thoracic injuries were examined in front row occupants involved in frontal crashes from the International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database. Among these occupants, two age groups (age < 60 yr. [Nonelderly] and age ≥ 60 yr. [Elderly]) who suffered severe thoracic injury were analyzed. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate injury outcomes using variables for vehicle, demographics, and morphomics. Compared to the nonelderly group, the elderly group sustained more rib fractures.
Technical Paper

The Quantification of Liver Anatomical Changes and Assessment of Occupant Liver Injury Patterns

Liver injuries can be significant in vehicle crashes. In this study, the liver anatomy was quantified in both adult and pediatric populations as a function of gender and age. Five anatomical liver measurements were determined using CT scans of 260 normal livers. These measurements include the area and volume, and the length, width, and girth of the liver (IRB HUM00041441). To characterize geometrical shape, an inscribed sphere and circumscribed ellipsoid were fitted on the measurements. In the pediatric population the liver area and volume continuously increased with age. When normalized by patient weight, volume measurements show a decrease in volume with age, suggesting that the liver occupies a smaller proportion of the body with age. In the adult population, liver measurements varied with gender. The superior and inferior locations of the liver were also recorded with respect to the spine. The lower portion was at the L3 in small children and at L2 as children approached puberty.
Journal Article

The Effect of Age on Fat and Bone Properties along the Vertebral Spine

The human body changes as it becomes older. The automotive safety community has been interested in understanding the effect of aging on restraint performance. Recent research has been focused on assessing the structural and material changes associated with age. In this study, structural tissue distribution was determined using the computed tomography (CT) scan data of more than 19,000 patients, aged 16 and up. The data consisted of subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area, visceral fat cross-sectional area, and trabecular bone density taken at each vertebral level. The data was quantified as a function of five age groups with the youngest group defined as 16-29 years old and the oldest group as 75 and up. An additional analysis stratified on gender was carried out. Overall, visceral fat increased with age.
Technical Paper

Patterns of Acetabular Femoral Head Coverage

The size and shape of the acetabulum and of the femoral head influence the injury tolerance of the hip joint. The aim of this study is to quantify changes in acetabular cup geometry that occur with age, gender, height, and weight. Anonymized computed tomography (CT) scans of 1,150 individuals 16+ years of age, both with and without hip trauma, were used to describe the acetabular rim with 100 equally spaced points. Bilateral measurements were taken on uninjured patients, while only the uninjured side was valuated in those with hip trauma. Multinomial logistic regression found that after controlling for age, height, weight, and gender, each 1 degree decrease in acetabular anteversion angle (AAA) corresponded to an 8 percent increase in fracture likelihood (p≺0.001).