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Technical Paper

Comparison between Finite Element and Hybrid Finite Element Results to Test Data for the Vibration of a Production Car Body

2019-06-05
2019-01-1530
The Hybrid Finite Element Analysis (HFEA) method is based on combining conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solutions and energy methods for mid-frequency computations. The method is appropriate for computing the vibration of structures which are comprised by stiff load bearing components and flexible panels attached to them; and for considering structure-borne loadings with the excitations applied on the load bearing members. In such situations, the difficulty in using conventional FEA at higher frequencies originates from requiring a very large number of elements in order to capture the flexible wavelength of the panel members which are present in a structure. In the HFEA the conventional FEA model is modified by de-activating the bending behavior of the flexible panels in the FEA computations and introducing instead a large number of dynamic impedance elements for representing the omitted bending behavior of the panels.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Elastically Supported Plate due to Excitation of a Turbulent Boundary Layer

2019-06-05
2019-01-1470
High-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are an important source for inducing structural vibration. Small geometric features of a structure can generate significant turbulence that result in structural vibration. In this work we develop a new method to couple a high-fidelity fluid solver with a dynamic hybrid analytical-numerical formulation for the structure. The fluid solver uses the Large-Eddy Simulation closure for the unresolved turbulence. Specifically, a local and dynamic one-equation eddy viscosity model is employed. The fluid pressure fluctuation on the structure is mapped to the dynamic structural model. The plate where the flow excitation is applied is considered as part of a larger structure. A hybrid approach based on the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) is used for developing the new hybrid formulation. The dynamic behavior of the plate which is excited by the flow is modeled using finite elements.
Technical Paper

Road Classification Based on System Response with Consideration of Tire Enveloping

2018-04-03
2018-01-0550
This paper presents a road classifier based on the system response with consideration of the tire enveloping. The aim is to provide an easily applicable yet accurate road classification approach for automotive engineers. For this purpose, tire enveloping effect is firstly modeled based on the flexible roller contact (FRC) theory, then transfer functions between road input and commonly used suspension responses i.e. the sprung mass acceleration, unsprung mass acceleration, and rattle space, are calculated for a quarter vehicle model. The influence of parameter variations, vehicle velocity, and measurement noise on transfer functions are comprehensively analyzed to derive the most suitable system response thereafter. In addition, this paper proposes a vehicle speed correction mechanism to further improve the classification accuracy under complex driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Integrated Brake Squeal with Induced Thermal Stress Analysis

2017-06-05
2017-01-1900
Brake squeal is an instability issue with many parameters. This study attempts to assess the effect of thermal load on brake squeal behavior through finite element computation. The research can be divided into two parts. The first step is to analyze the thermal conditions of a brake assembly based on ANSYS Fluent. Modeling of transient temperature and thermal-structural analysis are then used in coupled thermal-mechanical analysis using complex eigenvalue methods in ANSYS Mechanical to determine the deformation and the stress established in both the disk and the pad. Thus, the influence of thermal load may be observed when using finite element methods for prediction of brake squeal propensity. A detailed finite element model of a commercial brake disc was developed and verified by experimental modal analysis and structure free-free modal analysis.
Journal Article

Effect of Component Flexibility on Axle System Dynamics

2017-06-05
2017-01-1772
The prediction and control of gear vibration and noise has become very important in the design of a quiet, high-quality gearbox systems. The vibratory energy of the gear pair caused by transmission error excitation is transmitted structurally through shaft-bearing-housing assembly and radiates off from exterior housing surface. Most of the previous studies ignore the contribution of components flexibility to the transmission error (TE) and system dynamic responses. In this study, a system level model of axle system with hypoid gear pair is developed, aiming at investigating the effect of the elasticity of the shafts, bearings and housing on TE as well as the contribution of flexible bearings on the dynamic responses. The load distribution results and gear transmission errors are calculated and compared between different assumptions on the boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Two-Point Spatial Velocity Correlations in the Near-Wall Region of a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0613
Developing a complete understanding of the structure and behavior of the near-wall region (NWR) in reciprocating, internal combustion (IC) engines and of its interaction with the core flow is needed to support the implementation of advanced combustion and engine operation strategies, as well as predictive computational models. The NWR in IC engines is fundamentally different from the canonical steady-state turbulent boundary layers (BL), whose structure, similarity and dynamics have been thoroughly documented in the technical literature. Motivated by this need, this paper presents results from the analysis of two-component velocity data measured with particle image velocimetry near the head of a single-cylinder, optical engine. The interaction between the NWR and the core flow was quantified via statistical moments and two-point velocity correlations, determined at multiple distances from the wall and piston positions.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Vehicle Body NVH Performance Based on Dynamic Response Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0440
Noise-vibration-harshness (NVH) design optimization problems have become major concerns in the vehicle product development process. The Body-in-White (BIW) plays an important role in determining the dynamic characteristics of vehicle system during the concept design phase. Finite Element (FE) models are commonly used for vehicle design. However, even though the speed of computers has been increased a lot, the simulation of FE models is still too time-consuming due to the increase in model complexity. For complex systems, like vehicle body structures, the numerous design variables and constraints make the FE simulations based optimization design inefficient. This calls for the development of a systematic and efficient approach that can effectively perform optimization to further improve the NVH performance, while satisfying the stringent design constraints.
Journal Article

Optimization of an Advanced Combustion Strategy Towards 55% BTE for the Volvo SuperTruck Program

2017-03-28
2017-01-0723
This paper describes a novel design and verification process for analytical methods used in the development of advanced combustion strategies in internal combustion engines (ICE). The objective was to improve brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as part of the US Department of Energy SuperTruck program. The tools and methods herein discussed consider spray formation and injection schedule along with piston bowl design to optimize combustion efficiency, air utilization, heat transfer, emission, and BTE. The methodology uses a suite of tools to optimize engine performance, including 1D engine simulation, high-fidelity CFD, and lab-scale fluid mechanic experiments. First, a wide range of engine operating conditions are analyzed using 1-D engine simulations in GT Power to thoroughly define a baseline for the chosen advanced engine concept; secondly, an optimization and down-select step is completed where further improvements in engine geometries and spray configurations are considered.
Technical Paper

Computational Development of a Dual Pre-Chamber Engine Concept for Lean Burn Combustion

2016-10-17
2016-01-2242
Pre-chambers are a means to enable lean burn combustion strategies which can increase the thermal efficiency of gasoline spark ignition internal combustion engines. A new engine concept is evaluated in this work using computational simulations of non-reacting flow. The objective of the computational study was to evaluate the feasibility of several engine design configurations combined with fuel injection strategies to create local fuel/air mixtures in the pre-chambers above the ignition and flammability limits, while maintaining lean conditions in the main combustion chamber. The current work used computational fluid dynamics to develop a novel combustion chamber geometry where the flow was evaluated through a series of six design iterations to create ignitable mixtures (based on fuel-to-air equivalence ratio, ϕ) using fuel injection profiles and flow control via the piston, cylinder head, and pre-chamber geometry.
Journal Article

Interaction of Gear-Shaft Dynamics Considering Gyroscopic Effect of Compliant Driveline System

2015-06-15
2015-01-2182
Due to the design of lightweight, high speed driveline system, the coupled bending and torsional vibration and rotordynamics must be considered to predict vibratory responses more realistically. In the current analysis, a lumped parameter model of the propeller shaft is developed with Timoshenko beam elements, which includes the effect of rotary inertia and shear deformation. The propeller shaft model is then coupled with a hypoid gear pair representation using the component mode synthesis approach. In the proposed formulation, the gyroscopic effect of both the gear and propeller shaft is considered. The simulation results show that the interaction between gear gyroscopic effect and propeller shaft bending flexibility has considerable influence on the gear dynamic mesh responses around bending resonances, whereas the torsional modes still dominate in the overall frequency spectrum.
Technical Paper

Test Method, Simulation and Micro-process Dynamic Model for Noise Analysis of Auto Hydraulic Shock Absorber

2015-06-15
2015-01-2351
In order to measure the noise of auto shock absorbers, a test bench used to detect piston-rod vibration responses of shock absorbers and measuring analyzer named SANTS-I were developed. The vibration response data was detected by bench tests, which shows that there are high-frequency violent peaks on the sine curve of piston-rod oscillating with relative low frequency. In order to explain the interior work dynamic mechanism of shock absorbers, a schematic Micro-process Dynamic Model with 10 steps particularly divided extension and compression stroke in more detail, and dynamic differential equations for each step were presented and discussed. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the inner impacts interaction between piston and damping fluid of hydraulic shock absorber was realized by ADINA software, by the establishment of a gas-liquid two-phase finite element model.
Technical Paper

Acoustics Characterization of Nano Enhanced Open Cell Foams

2015-06-15
2015-01-2205
A comprehensive and systematic investigation of the acoustical performance of carbon-nanotube-enhanced polyurethane (PU) foams was performed. The complete foam making process was carried out carefully in order to create stable foams to be integrated with many carbon nanotube materials. A total of eight design parameters were evaluated. Both normal incidence sound transmission loss (STL) and absorption coefficient were measured by use of an impedance tube. It was found that there is an optimum value for most of the design parameters. In general, nanotube-enhanced PU foam definitely demonstrated improvements in both absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss. The improvement of absorption could reach up to 14% and the improvement in STL was quite substantial, i.e. up to 97.5%. This significant improvement in STL with a better absorption coefficient could represent a potential breakthrough in acoustical PU foam manufacturing.
Technical Paper

The Design Optimization of Interior Noise in Vehicle Based on Response Surface Method

2015-06-15
2015-01-2242
The design optimization of vehicle body structure is addressed to reduce interior noise and improve customer satisfaction in this paper. The structural-acoustic model is established and the response of sound pressure in frequency domain is obtained by using finite element method. The minimization of sound pressure near the driver's right ear depends on the geometry of vehicle body structure and the layout of damping treatments. The panel participation analysis is performed to find out the key panels as design variables and improve the efficiency of optimization computation. Response Surface Method (RSM) is utilized to optimize the vibro-acoustic properties of vehicle body structure instead of complex structural-acoustic coupling finite element model. Geometric optimization problem of panels is described and solved to minimize the interior noise in vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Design Optimization of Vehicle Interior Noise through Structural Modification and Constrained Layer Damping Treatment

2015-04-14
2015-01-0663
The design optimization of vehicle body structure is addressed to reduce interior noise and improve customer satisfaction in this paper. The structural-acoustic model is developed by using finite element method. The frequency response of structural-acoustic system is computed by modal analysis method. The optimization problem is constructed to minimize the sound pressure level in the right ear of the driver. The sensitivity analysis is carried out to find the key panels to be optimized as design variables and improve the efficiency of optimization computation. Response Surface Method (RSM) is utilized to develop the surrogate model and optimize the vehicle Noise Vehicle and Harshness (NVH) behavior. A 9dB reduction of sound pressure level (SPL) in the right era of the driver is obtained through geometric optimization for panels. Furthermore, the topology optimization model is developed to search the optimal layout of constrained layer damping treatments in the front floor.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Airborne Noise Analysis Using the Energy Finite Element Method

2013-05-13
2013-01-1998
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been developed for computing the structural vibration and the interior noise level of complex structural-acoustic systems by solving numerically governing differential equations with energy densities as primary variables. In this paper a complete simulation process for evaluating airborne noise in an automotive vehicle is presented and validated through extensive comparison to test data. The theoretical elements associated with the important paths of the noise transfer from the exterior of the vehicle to the interior acoustic space are discussed. The steps required for developing an EFEA model for a vehicle are presented. The model is developed based on the physical construction of the vehicle system and no test measurements are utilized for adjusting the numerical model.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Sound Transmission Loss and Absorption Coefficient of Acoustical Materials

2011-05-17
2011-01-1625
Acoustical materials are widely used in automotive vehicles and other industrial applications. Two important parameters namely Sound Transmission Loss (STL) and absorption coefficient are commonly used to evaluate the acoustical performance of these materials. Other parameters, such as insertion loss, noise reduction, and loss factors are also used to judge their performance depending on the application of these materials. A systematic comparative study of STL and absorption coefficient was conducted on various porous acoustical materials. Several dozen materials including needled cotton fiber (shoddy) and foam materials with or without barrier/scrim were investigated. The results of STL and absorption coefficient are presented and compared. As expected, it was found that most of materials are either good in STL or good in absorption. However, some combinations can achieve a balance of performance in both categories.
Technical Paper

Interior Aircraft Noise Computations due to TBL Excitation using the Energy Finite Element Analysis

2009-05-19
2009-01-2248
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been developed for evaluating the vibro-acoustic behavior of complex systems. In the past EFEA results have been compared successfully to measured data for Naval, automotive, and aircraft systems. The main objective of this paper is to present information about the process of developing EFEA models for two configurations of a business jet, performing analysis for computing the vibration and the interior noise induced from exterior turbulent boundary layer excitation, and discussing the correlation between test data and simulation results. The structural EFEA model is generated from an existing finite element model used for stress analysis during the aircraft design process. Structural elements used in the finite element model for representing the complete complex aircraft structure become part of the EFEA structural model.
Technical Paper

Study on Natural Torsional Vibration Characteristics of Dual Mass - Flywheel Radial Spring Type Torsional Vibration Damper

2009-05-19
2009-01-2062
The working principle of dual mass flywheel - radial spring (DMF-RS) type torsional vibration damper was analyzed, and the design method of natural torsional vibration characteristics control of DMF-RS type torsional damper for automotive powertrains was studied herein. Based on the multi-freedom lumped mass - torsional vibration spring analysis model of powertrain, the natural torsional vibration characteristics of the system with DMF-RS type torsional damper were analyzed, and compared with the clutch type torsional vibration damper, the effectiveness of DMF-RS type torsional damper on the torsional vibration control was verified.
Technical Paper

Structure-borne Vehicle Analysis using a Hybrid Finite Element Method

2009-05-19
2009-01-2196
The hybrid FEA method combines the conventional FEA method with the energy FEA (EFEA) for computing the structural vibration in vehicle structures when the excitation is applied on the load bearing stiff structural members. Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in the vehicle. In order to account for the effect of the flexible members in the FEA analysis, appropriate damping and spring/mass elements are introduced at the connections between stiff and flexible members. Computing properly the values of these damping and spring/mass elements is important for the overall accuracy of the computations. Utilizing in these computations the analytical solutions for the driving point impedance of infinite or semi-infinite members introduces significant approximations.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Reach Kinematics of the Upper Extremity in a Dynamic Vehicle Environment

2008-06-17
2008-01-1886
Simulation of reach movements is an essential component for proactive ergonomic analysis in digital human modeling and for numerous applications in vehicle design. Most studies on reach kinematics described human movements in static conditions. Earlier studies of reach performance in vibration environments focused mainly on fingertip deviation without considering multi-body dynamics. However, for the proper assessment of reach performance under whole-body vibration exposure, a multi-body biodynamic model needs to be developed. This study analyzes three dimensional reach kinematics of the upper extremity during in-vehicle operations, using a multi-segmental model of the upper body in the vibratory environment. The goals are to identify the characteristics of upper body reach movements and to investigate vibration-induced changes in joint kinematics. Thirteen subjects reached to four target directions in the right hemisphere.
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