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Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Modeling and Optimization of a Submarine Pressure Hull

2019-06-05
2019-01-1498
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been validated in the past through comparison with test data for computing the structural vibration and the radiated noise for Naval systems in the mid to high frequency range. A main benefit of the method is that it enables fast computations for full scale models. This capability is exploited by using the EFEA for a submarine pressure hull design optimization study. A generic but representative pressure hull is considered. Design variables associated with the dimensions of the king frames, the thickness of the pressure hull in the vicinity of the excitation (the latter is considered to be applied on the king frames of the machinery room), the dimensions of the frames, and the damping applied on the hull are adjusted during the optimization process in order to minimize the radiated noise in the frequency range from 1,000Hz to 16,000Hz.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Finite Element and Hybrid Finite Element Results to Test Data for the Vibration of a Production Car Body

2019-06-05
2019-01-1530
The Hybrid Finite Element Analysis (HFEA) method is based on combining conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solutions and energy methods for mid-frequency computations. The method is appropriate for computing the vibration of structures which are comprised by stiff load bearing components and flexible panels attached to them; and for considering structure-borne loadings with the excitations applied on the load bearing members. In such situations, the difficulty in using conventional FEA at higher frequencies originates from requiring a very large number of elements in order to capture the flexible wavelength of the panel members which are present in a structure. In the HFEA the conventional FEA model is modified by de-activating the bending behavior of the flexible panels in the FEA computations and introducing instead a large number of dynamic impedance elements for representing the omitted bending behavior of the panels.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

2019-04-02
2019-01-0530
Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Modeling Static Load Distribution and Friction of Ball Bearings and BNAs: Towards Understanding the “Stick-Slip” of Rack EPAS

2019-04-02
2019-01-1240
Electric power assisted steering (EPAS) systems are widely adopted in modern vehicles to reduce the steering effort of drivers. In rack EPAS, assist torque is applied by a motor and transmitted through two key mechanical components: ball bearing and ball nut assembly (BNA) to turn the front wheels. Large combined load and manufacturing errors not only make it hard to accurately calculate the load distribution in the ball bearing and BNA for the purpose of sizing, but also make the friction behavior of EPAS gear complicated. Rack EPAS gear is well known to suffer from “stick-slip” (i.e., sticky feel sensed by the driver), which affects the user experience. “Stick-slip” is an extreme case of friction variation mainly coming from ball bearing and BNA. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in commercial software like ANSYS is usually conducted to study the load distribution and friction of ball bearing and BNA.
Technical Paper

Closed-Form Structural Stress Solutions for Spot Welds in Square Plates under Central Bending Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1114
A new closed-form structural stress solution for a spot weld in a square thin plate under central bending conditions is derived based on the thin plate theory. The spot weld is treated as a rigid inclusion and the plate is treated as a thin plate. The boundary conditions follow those of the published solution for a rigid inclusion in a square plate under counter bending conditions. The new closed-form solution indicates that structural stress solution near the rigid inclusion on the surface of the plate along the symmetry plane is larger than those for a rigid inclusion in an infinite plate and a finite circular plate with pinned and clamped outer boundaries under central bending conditions. When the radius distance becomes large and approaches to the outer boundary, the new analytical stress solution approaches to the reference stress whereas the other analytical solutions do not.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analyses of Structural Stresses near Dissimilar Spot Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens

2019-04-02
2019-01-1112
Structural stress distributions near nearly rigid, dissimilar and similar spot joints in lap-shear specimens are investigated by 3-D finite element analyses. A set of accurate closed-form structural stress solutions is first presented. The closed-form structural stress solutions were derived for a rigid inclusion in a square thin plate under various loading conditions with the weak boundary conditions along outer edges or semi-circular paths by satisfying the equilibrium conditions. Finite element analyses with different joint material behaviors, element types and mesh designs are conducted to examine the structural stress solutions near the spot joints in lap-shear specimens. The results of the finite element analyses indicate that the computational structural stress solutions on the edge of the joint depend on the joint material behavior, element type, and mesh design.
Technical Paper

Estimates of the Convective Heat-Transfer Coefficients for Under-Hood and Under-Body Components

2019-04-02
2019-01-0149
In this paper we investigate the application of time constant to estimate the external heat transfer coefficient (h) around specific vehicle components. Using this approach, a test sample in the form of a steel plate is placed around the component of interest. A step change is applied to air temperature surrounding the sample. The response of the sample temperature can be analyzed and the heat transfer coefficient can therefore be calculated. Several test samples were installed at several locations in the vehicle under-hood and underbody. A series of vehicle tests were designed to measure the time constant around each component at various vehicle speeds. A correlation between estimated heat transfer coefficients and vehicle speed was generated. The developed correlations and the measured component ambient temperatures can be readily used as input for thermal simulation tools. This approach can be very helpful whenever CFD resources may not be available.
Technical Paper

Study on Frictional Behavior of AA 6XXX with Three Lube Conditions in Sheet Metal Forming

2018-04-03
2018-01-0810
Light-weighting vehicles cause an increase in Aluminum Alloy stamping processes in the Automotive Industry. Surface finish and lubricants of aluminum alloy (AA) sheet play an important role in the deep drawing processes as they can affect the friction condition between the die and the sheet. This paper aims to develop a reliable and practical laboratory test method to experimentally investigate the influence of surface finish, lubricant conditions, draw-bead clearances and pulling speed on the frictional sliding behavior of AA 6XXX sheet metal. A new double-beads draw-bead-simulator (DBS) system was used to conduct the simulated test to determine the frictional behavior of an aluminium alloy with three surface lubricant conditions: mill finish (MF) with oil lube, electric discharge texture (EDT) finish with oil lube and mill finish (MF) with dry lube (DL).
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Twist Spring-back Control with an Unbalanced Post-stretching Approach for Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0806
Twist spring-back would interfere with stamping or assembling procedures for advanced high strength steel. A “homeopathic” resolution for controlling the twist spring-back is proposed using unbalanced post-stretching configuration. Finite element forming simulation is applied to evaluate and compare the performance for each set of unbalanced post-stretching setup. The post-stretching is effectuated by stake bead application. The beads are separated into multiple independent segments, the height and radii of which can be adjusted individually and asymmetrically. Simulation results indicate that the twist spring-back can be effectively controlled by reducing the post-stretching proximate to the asymmetric part area. Its mechanism is qualitatively revealed by stress analyses, that an additional but acceptable cross-sectional spring-back re-balances the sprung asymmetrical geometry to counter the twist effect.
Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Study of Incremental Bending Test on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-0807
Bendability is one of the most important formability characteristics in sheet metal forming, so it has to be understood for robust aluminum stamping process designs. Crack is one of the major failure modes in aluminum sheet bending. In this study, a new “incremental bending” method is proposed to reduce the risk of bending failure. A novel laboratory test methodology is conducted to test the 5xxx series aluminum sheet bendability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system. The designs of test apparatus and test procedure are introduced in this paper. Through the data processing and evaluation of a sequence image acquisition, the major strain histories within the zone of the through thickness crack of test samples are measured. Testing results show that incremental bending is capable of reducing peak strain on the outer surface obviously compared with traditional non-incremental bending. The more step, more movement, the more peak strain reduction.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Hole Punching Force for AHSS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0802
The elevated strength of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) leads to enormous challenges for the sheet metal processing, one of which is hole punching operation. The total tonnage must be estimated at each trimming stage to ensure successful cutting and protect the press machine. This paper presents the effects of hole punch configurations on the punching force with the consideration of punch shape, cutting clearance and material grade. The hole punching experiments were performed with DP590, DP980, DP1180 and one mild steel as a reference. The punching force coefficient is defined and presents a negative correlation with the material strength based on the experimental data. Surface quality was examined to analyze the damage accumulation during the punching process. The cutting mechanisms with various punch shapes were revealed through an extensive finite element simulation study.
Technical Paper

Effects of Punch Shapes and Cutting Configurations on the Dimensional Accuracy of Punched Holes on an AHSS Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0800
Dimensional accuracy of punched hole is an essential consideration for high-quality sheet metal forming. An out-of-shape hole can give rise to manufacturing issues in the subsequent production processes thus inducing quality defects on a vehicle body. To understand the effects of punch shapes and cutting configurations on punched hole diameter deviations, a systematical experimental study was conducted for multiple types of AHSS (DP1180, DP980, DP590) and one mild steel. Flat, conical and rooftop punches were tested respectively with three cutting clearances on each material. The measurement results indicated different diameter enlargement modes based on the punch profiles, and dimensional discrepancies were found to be more significant with the stronger materials and higher cutting clearance. To uncover the mechanism of punched hole enlargement, a series of finite element simulations were established for numerical investigation.
Journal Article

A Thermomechanical Fatigue Analysis on a Ductile Cast Iron Exhaust Manifold

2018-04-03
2018-01-1215
An engine exhaust manifold undergoes repeated thermal expansion and contraction due to temperature variation. Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) arises due to the boundary constraints on thermal expansion so that mechanical strain is introduced. Therefore, TMF evaluation is very important in engine design. In this work, the mechanical properties important for TMF assessment and modeling of a silicon (Si)- and molybdenum (Mo)-containing ductile cast iron used for exhaust manifold have been evaluated. Tensile, creep, isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF), and TMF tests have been conducted. Parameters for material modeling, such as the viscoplastic constitutive model and the Neu-Sehitoglu TMF damage model, have been calibrated, validated, and used to evaluate the TMF life of the exhaust manifold.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Flow Drill Screw Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6082-T6 Sheets Made with Different Processing Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1237
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets made with different processing conditions are investigated based on the experimental results and a structural stress fatigue life estimation model. Lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without clearance hole and lap-shear specimens with stripped FDS joints with clearance hole were made and then tested under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs show the failure modes of the FDS joints without clearance hole (with gap) and the stripped FDS joints with clearance hole under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The fatigue failure mode of the FDS joints without clearance hole (with gap) in lap-shear specimens is similar to those with clearance hole. The fatigue lives of lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without clearance hole are lower than those with clearance hole for given load ranges under cyclic loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Strength and Failure Mode of Flow Drill Screw Joints in Coach-Peel Specimens of Aluminum 6082-T6 Sheets of Different Thicknesses and Processing Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0116
The mechanical strength and failure mode of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in coach-peel specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets of three different thicknesses of 2.5, 2.8 and 3.0 mm and three different processing conditions under quasi-static loading conditions are investigated by experiments. The experimental results indicate that the mechanical strength and failure mode of FDS joints in coach-peel specimens are affected by the specimen thickness, clearance hole and stripping. The maximum load of a coach-peel specimen with an FDS joint with clearance hole increases as the thickness increases. For each of the thickness groups of 2.5, 2.8 and 3.0 mm, the maximum load of a coach-peel specimen with an FDS joint without clearance hole is lower than that with clearance hole. For the thickness group of 2.8 mm, the maximum load of a coach-peel specimen with a stripped FDS joint with clearance hole is lower than those of non-stripped ones with and without clearance hole.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-Strain on Edge Cracking Limit for Advanced High-Strength Steel Using Digital Image Correlation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0394
Advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is gaining popularity in the automotive industry due to its higher final part strength with the better formability compares to the conventional steel. However, the edge fracture occurs during the forming procedure for the pre-strained part. To avoid the edge fracture that happens during the manufacturing, the effect of pre-strain on edge cracking limit needs to be studied. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC), as an accurate optical method, is adopted for the strain measurement to determining the edge cracking limit. Sets of the wide coupons are pre-strained to obtain the samples at different pre-strain level. The pre-strain of each sample is precisely measured during this procedure using DIC. After pre-straining, the half dog bone samples are cut from these wide coupons. The edge of the notch in the half dog bone samples is created by the punch with 10% clearance for the distinct edge condition.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Sheet Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) Study

2017-03-28
2017-01-0396
Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Vehicle Body NVH Performance Based on Dynamic Response Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0440
Noise-vibration-harshness (NVH) design optimization problems have become major concerns in the vehicle product development process. The Body-in-White (BIW) plays an important role in determining the dynamic characteristics of vehicle system during the concept design phase. Finite Element (FE) models are commonly used for vehicle design. However, even though the speed of computers has been increased a lot, the simulation of FE models is still too time-consuming due to the increase in model complexity. For complex systems, like vehicle body structures, the numerous design variables and constraints make the FE simulations based optimization design inefficient. This calls for the development of a systematic and efficient approach that can effectively perform optimization to further improve the NVH performance, while satisfying the stringent design constraints.
Technical Paper

Static Loading Analysis of Third Row Floor Duct System Using Finite Element Method

2017-03-28
2017-01-0168
In current scenario, there is an increasing need to have faster product development and achieve the optimum design quickly. In an automobile air conditioning system, the main function of HVAC third row floor duct is to get the sufficient airflow from the rear heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and to provide the sufficient airflow within the leg locations of passenger. Apart from airflow and temperature, fatigue strength of the duct is one of the important factors that need to be considered while designing and optimizing the duct. The challenging task is to package the duct below the carpet within the constrained space and the duct should withstand the load applied by the passenger leg and the luggage. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used extensively to validate the stress and deformation of the duct under different loading conditions applied over the duct system.
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