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Technical Paper

Two-Point Spatial Velocity Correlations in the Near-Wall Region of a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0613
Developing a complete understanding of the structure and behavior of the near-wall region (NWR) in reciprocating, internal combustion (IC) engines and of its interaction with the core flow is needed to support the implementation of advanced combustion and engine operation strategies, as well as predictive computational models. The NWR in IC engines is fundamentally different from the canonical steady-state turbulent boundary layers (BL), whose structure, similarity and dynamics have been thoroughly documented in the technical literature. Motivated by this need, this paper presents results from the analysis of two-component velocity data measured with particle image velocimetry near the head of a single-cylinder, optical engine. The interaction between the NWR and the core flow was quantified via statistical moments and two-point velocity correlations, determined at multiple distances from the wall and piston positions.
Journal Article

Optimization of an Advanced Combustion Strategy Towards 55% BTE for the Volvo SuperTruck Program

2017-03-28
2017-01-0723
This paper describes a novel design and verification process for analytical methods used in the development of advanced combustion strategies in internal combustion engines (ICE). The objective was to improve brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as part of the US Department of Energy SuperTruck program. The tools and methods herein discussed consider spray formation and injection schedule along with piston bowl design to optimize combustion efficiency, air utilization, heat transfer, emission, and BTE. The methodology uses a suite of tools to optimize engine performance, including 1D engine simulation, high-fidelity CFD, and lab-scale fluid mechanic experiments. First, a wide range of engine operating conditions are analyzed using 1-D engine simulations in GT Power to thoroughly define a baseline for the chosen advanced engine concept; secondly, an optimization and down-select step is completed where further improvements in engine geometries and spray configurations are considered.
Technical Paper

Computational Development of a Dual Pre-Chamber Engine Concept for Lean Burn Combustion

2016-10-17
2016-01-2242
Pre-chambers are a means to enable lean burn combustion strategies which can increase the thermal efficiency of gasoline spark ignition internal combustion engines. A new engine concept is evaluated in this work using computational simulations of non-reacting flow. The objective of the computational study was to evaluate the feasibility of several engine design configurations combined with fuel injection strategies to create local fuel/air mixtures in the pre-chambers above the ignition and flammability limits, while maintaining lean conditions in the main combustion chamber. The current work used computational fluid dynamics to develop a novel combustion chamber geometry where the flow was evaluated through a series of six design iterations to create ignitable mixtures (based on fuel-to-air equivalence ratio, ϕ) using fuel injection profiles and flow control via the piston, cylinder head, and pre-chamber geometry.
Technical Paper

Test Method, Simulation and Micro-process Dynamic Model for Noise Analysis of Auto Hydraulic Shock Absorber

2015-06-15
2015-01-2351
In order to measure the noise of auto shock absorbers, a test bench used to detect piston-rod vibration responses of shock absorbers and measuring analyzer named SANTS-I were developed. The vibration response data was detected by bench tests, which shows that there are high-frequency violent peaks on the sine curve of piston-rod oscillating with relative low frequency. In order to explain the interior work dynamic mechanism of shock absorbers, a schematic Micro-process Dynamic Model with 10 steps particularly divided extension and compression stroke in more detail, and dynamic differential equations for each step were presented and discussed. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the inner impacts interaction between piston and damping fluid of hydraulic shock absorber was realized by ADINA software, by the establishment of a gas-liquid two-phase finite element model.
Technical Paper

Pressure Reactive Piston Technology Investigation and Development for Spark Ignition Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-1648
Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method of improving Spark Ignition (SI) engine fuel economy. The Pressure Reactive Piston (PRP) assembly features a two-piece piston, with a piston crown and separate piston skirt which enclose a spring set between them. The unique feature is that the upper piston reacts to the cylinder pressure, accommodating rapid engine load changes passively. This mechanism effectively limits the peak pressures at high loads without an additional control device, while allowing the engine to operate at high compression ratio during low load conditions. Dynamometer engine testing showed that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) improvement of the PRP over the conventional piston ranged from 8 to 18 % up to 70% load. Knock free full load operation was also achieved. The PRP equipped engine combustion is characterized by reverse motion of the piston crown near top dead center and higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

New Heat Transfer Correlation for an HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of Instantaneous Surface Heat Flux

2004-10-25
2004-01-2996
An experimental study has been carried out to provide qualitative and quantitative insight into gas to wall heat transfer in a gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Fast response thermocouples are embedded in the piston top and cylinder head surface to measure instantaneous wall temperature and heat flux. Heat flux measurements obtained at multiple locations show small spatial variations, thus confirming relative uniformity of in-cylinder conditions in a HCCI engine operating with premixed charge. Consequently, the spatially-averaged heat flux represents well the global heat transfer from the gas to the combustion chamber walls in the premixed HCCI engine, as confirmed through the gross heat release analysis. Heat flux measurements were used for assessing several existing heat transfer correlations. One of the most popular models, the Woschni expression, was shown to be inadequate for the HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Exhaust Valve Timing on Gasoline Engine Performance and Hydrocarbon Emissions

2004-10-25
2004-01-3058
Despite remarkable progress made over the past 30 years, automobiles continue to be a major source of hydrocarbon emissions. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether variable exhaust valve opening (EVO) and exhaust valve closing (EVC) can be used to reduce hydrocarbon emissions. An automotive gasoline engine was tested with different EVO and EVC timings under steady-state and start-up conditions. The first strategy that was evaluated uses early EVO with standard EVC. Although exhaust gas temperature is increased and catalyst light-off time is reduced, the rapid drop in cylinder temperature increases cylinder-out hydrocarbons to such a degree that a net increase in hydrocarbon emissions results. The second strategy that was evaluated uses early EVO with early EVC. Early EVO reduces catalyst light-off time by increasing exhaust gas temperature and early EVC keeps the hydrocarbon-rich exhaust gas from the piston crevice from leaving the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Films as a Source of Smoke and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Wall-Controlled Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0547
Thin films of liquid fuel can form on the piston surface in spark-ignited direct-injection (SIDI) engines. These fuel films can result in pool fires that lead to deposit formation and increased hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions. Previous investigations of the effects of piston fuel films on engine-out HC and smoke emissions have been hampered by their inability to measure the fuel-film mass in operating direct-injection engines. In this paper, a recently developed high-speed refractive-index-matching imaging technique is used for quantitative time- and space-resolved measurements of fuel-film mass on a quartz piston window of an optically-accessible direct-injection engine operating over a range of fully-warmed-up stratified-charge conditions with both a high-pressure hollow-cone swirl-type injector and with a high-pressure multihole injector.
Technical Paper

Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-1780
This paper presents an overview of techniques for measuring friction using bench tests and fired engines. The test methods discussed have been developed to provide efficient, yet realistic, assessments of new component designs, materials, and lubricants for in-cylinder and overall engine applications. A Cameron-Plint Friction and Wear Tester was modified to permit ring-in-piston-groove movement by the test specimen, and used to evaluate a number of cylinder bore coatings for friction and wear performance. In a second study, it was used to evaluate the energy conserving characteristics of several engine lubricant formulations. Results were consistent with engine and vehicle testing, and were correlated with measured fuel economy performance. The Instantaneous IMEP Method for measuring in-cylinder frictional forces was extended to higher engine speeds and to modern, low-friction engine designs.
Technical Paper

Modeling Fully-Coupled Rigid Engine Dynamics and Vibrations

1999-05-17
1999-01-1749
The internal combustion (IC) engine is an important source of vibration in many vehicles, and understanding its dynamic response to demands from both the vehicle operator and the terrain is essential to proper engine and mount design and optimization. Development of an engineering tool for understanding this dynamic response and the resulting forces transmitted from the engine block to the supporting structure is a priority in both commercial and military engine applications. Ideally, engine dynamics and vibration would be directly simulated through effective and efficient analytical and computational models of both the internal engine component dynamics as well as engine block vibrations. The present analytical study was undertaken to produce a comprehensive and efficient rigid-body engine dynamics and vibration model which predicts engine block motion, engine mount load transmission, as well as instantaneous engine crankshaft rotational speed.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Location of Knock Initiation on Heat Flux Into an SI Combustion Chamber

1997-10-01
972935
A study has been conducted in order to investigate the effect of the location of knock initiation on heat flux in a Spark-Ignition (SI) combustion chamber. Heat flux measurements were taken on the piston and cylinder head under different knock intensity levels, induced by advancing the spark timing. Tests were performed with two engine configurations, the first with the spark-plug located on the rear side of the chamber and the other having a second non-firing spark-plug placed at the front side of the chamber. The presence of the non-firing spark-plug consistently shifted the location of autoignition initiation from the surface of the piston to its vicinity, without causing a noticeable increase in knock intensity. By localizing the initiation of knock, changes induced in the secondary flame propagation pattern affected both the magnitude and the rate of change of peak heat flux under heavy knock.
Technical Paper

Piston Heat Transfer Measurements Under Varying Knock Intensity in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-05-01
971667
Piston heat transfer measurements were taken under varying knock intensity in a modern spark-ignition engine combustion chamber. For a range of knocking spark timings, two knock intensity levels were obtained by using a high (80°C) and a low (50°C) cylinder head coolant temperature. Data were taken with a central and a side spark plug configuration. When the spark-plug was placed at the center of the combustion chamber, a linear variation of peak heat flux with knock intensity was found in the end-gas region. Very large changes in peak heat flux (on the order of 100%) occurred at probes whose relative location with respect to the end gas zone changed from being within (80°C coolant case) to being outside the zone (50°C coolant case). With side spark-plug, distinct differences in peak heat flux occurred at all probes and under all knock intensities, but the correlation between knock intensity and heat flux was not linear.
Technical Paper

Bench Test for Scuff Evaluation of Surface Modified Piston and Bore Materials

1996-02-01
960013
This paper describes a bench method to evaluate the frictional behavior, under scuffing conditions, of some test coupons of standard materials currently used in making cylinder bores and pistons. The usefulness of this method is in evaluating new materials and coatings that may enable the elimination of iron liners from engine blocks. While investigating the potential application of Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) on engine piston/bore materials, we have systematically studied the scuffing related friction behavior of aluminum 390 alloy and cast iron. A pin-on-disk tribometer is used under dry sliding conditions. Testing parameters for simulating cold scuff in bench tests have been specified. This proposed test method offers a screening tool desirable for the development of PSII technology and may also be useful for the design of other new surface modification techniques.
Technical Paper

A Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for Aluminum Alloy Piston/Bore Application

1996-02-01
960014
This paper examines the potential use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) on aluminum alloy pistons of internal combustion engines. Our approach is to apply a DLC coating on the piston running against an aluminum-390 bore thus eliminating the iron liners in a standard piston/bore system. Experimental data, using a pin-on-disk tribometer under unlubricated test conditions, indicate that the performance of the DLC coating against aluminum 390 exhibits superior friction resistance compared to aluminum-390 against cast iron; the latter material couple representing the materials currently being used in production for the piston/bore application. Moreover, by thermally cycling the DLC coatings we show that improved friction and wear properties can he maintained to temperatures as high as 400°C.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston Crevice Geometry on the Steady-State Engine-Out Hydrocarbons Emissions of a S.I. Engine

1995-10-01
952537
This study investigated the effects of piston Crevice geometry on the steady-state engine-out hydrocarbons (HC) from a Saturn DOHC four-cylinder production engine. A 50% reduction in top-land height produced about 20-25% reduction in HC emissions, at part loads. The effect of top-land radial clearance on HC emissions was found to depend on the value of top-land height, which suggests a complex relation between flame propagation in the piston crevice and crevice geometry. For idle, increasing top-land clearance resulted in an increase in HC emissions. This trend is opposite to the trend at part load. A simple model was developed which predicts surprisingly well the contribution of piston crevices to HC emissions. It was estimated that for the test engine, piston crevices contribute about 50% of the engine-out hydrocarbons. Finally exhaust gas recirculation appears to decrease the sensitivity of HC emissions to crevice dimensions.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Port-and-in-Cylinder Flow Calculations and Flow Visualization Study in an Internal Combustion Engine with Different Intake Configurations

1994-10-01
941871
Multidimensional simulations of coupled intake port/valve and in-cylinder flow structures in a pancake-shape combustion chamber engine are reported. The engine calculations include moving piston, moving intake valve, and valve stem. Direct comparisons of three intake configurations for the same cylinder geometry are presented: (1) standard intake valve; (2) intake valve with high-swirl shroud orientation; and (3) intake valve with across-head shroud orientation. In order to verify the calculated results, qualitative flow visualization experiments were carried out for the same intake geometries during the induction process using a transient water analog. During the intake process the results of the multidimensional simulation agreed very well with the qualitative flow visualization experiments.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of a Single Engine Business Jet

1993-05-01
931253
The preliminary design of a single engine business jet is presented. The airplane is intended to fill a market niche surrounded by several types of airplanes: single engine (piston and turboprop) and entry-level twin engine airplanes (turboprop and turbofan). The Williams-Rolls FJ44 turbofan engine, with a takeoff thrust rating of 1900 pounds, is chosen as the powerplant because of its low acquisition and maintenance costs. The airplane is designed to carry four persons and baggage 1500 n.m. with VFR reserves, and is intended to meet FAR 23 standards — including the 61 knot single engine stall speed requirement. A parametric analysis of wing aspect ratio, thickness, and taper is performed to determine the best planform from the standpoint of weight, cruise speed, and cost. Maximum cruise speed is estimated to be 371 knots and the airplane purchase price is estimated to be 1.98 million. These results indicate the airplane will satisfy intended market niche.
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