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Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Modeling and Optimization of a Submarine Pressure Hull

2019-06-05
2019-01-1498
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been validated in the past through comparison with test data for computing the structural vibration and the radiated noise for Naval systems in the mid to high frequency range. A main benefit of the method is that it enables fast computations for full scale models. This capability is exploited by using the EFEA for a submarine pressure hull design optimization study. A generic but representative pressure hull is considered. Design variables associated with the dimensions of the king frames, the thickness of the pressure hull in the vicinity of the excitation (the latter is considered to be applied on the king frames of the machinery room), the dimensions of the frames, and the damping applied on the hull are adjusted during the optimization process in order to minimize the radiated noise in the frequency range from 1,000Hz to 16,000Hz.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Objective Metric for Transient Engine Clatter Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1519
Several powertrain noise phenomena have been studied over the years. Sound quality metrics, like loudness, sharpness, modulation, and tonality, among others, have been developed to characterize powertrain noises. While these readily available metrics work well on steady state and some transient noises, they do not correlate directly with subjective impressions. Moreover, it is difficult to assign a meaningful single rating for time varying noises that may also be associated with simultaneous variations in frequency content. This paper summarizes the process of creating a vehicle level objective metric and its application to blind noise samples to verify correlation with subjective impressions, particularly in association with clatter noise at moderate engine speeds (2000-3500 rpm) with light to moderate throttle tip-ins.
Technical Paper

Survey of Automotive Privacy Regulations and Privacy-Related Attacks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0479
Privacy has been a rising concern. The European Union has established a privacy standard called General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in May 2018. Furthermore, the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data incident made headlines in March 2018. Data collection from vehicles by OEM platforms is increasingly popular and may offer OEMs new business models but it comes with the risk of privacy leakages. Vehicular sensor data shared with third-parties can lead to misuse of the requested data for other purposes than stated/intended. There exists a relevant regulation document introduced by the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (“Auto Alliance”), which classifies the vehicular sensors used for data collection as covered and non-sensitive parameters.
Technical Paper

Research on the Driving Stability Control System of the Dual-Motor Drive Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0436
In order to improve the steering stability of the dual-motor drive electric vehicle, Taking the yaw rate and the sideslip angle as the control variables, Using the improved two degree of freedom linear dynamic model and seven degree of freedom nonlinear vehicle dynamics model, The hierarchical structure is used to establish the dual-motor drive electric vehicle steering stability control strategy which consist of the upper direct yaw moment decision-making layer based on the sliding mode controller and the lower additional yaw moment distribution layer based on the optimization theory. The Matlab/Simulink-Carsim joint simulation platform was built. The control strategy proposed in this paper was simulated and verified under the snake test condition and double-line shift test condition.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Velocity Prediction and Energy Management Strategy Part 1: Deterministic and Stochastic Vehicle Velocity Prediction Using Machine Learning

2019-04-02
2019-01-1051
There is a pressing need to develop accurate and robust approaches for predicting vehicle speed to enhance fuel economy/energy efficiency, drivability and safety of automotive vehicles. This paper details outcomes of research into various methods for the prediction of vehicle velocity. The focus is on short-term predictions over 1 to 10 second prediction horizon. Such short-term predictions can be integrated into a hybrid electric vehicle energy management strategy and have the potential to improve HEV energy efficiency. Several deterministic and stochastic models are considered in this paper for prediction of future vehicle velocity. Deterministic models include an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, a Nonlinear Auto-Regressive with eXternal input (NARX) shallow neural network and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep neural network. Stochastic models include a Markov Chain (MC) model and a Conditional Linear Gaussian (CLG) model.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Velocity Prediction and Energy Management Strategy Part 2: Integration of Machine Learning Vehicle Velocity Prediction with Optimal Energy Management to Improve Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1212
An optimal energy management strategy (Optimal EMS) can yield significant fuel economy (FE) improvements without vehicle velocity modifications. Thus it has been the subject of numerous research studies spanning decades. One of the most challenging aspects of an Optimal EMS is that FE gains are typically directly related to high fidelity predictions of future vehicle operation. In this research, a comprehensive dataset is exploited which includes internal data (CAN bus) and external data (radar information and V2V) gathered over numerous instances of two highway drive cycles and one urban/highway mixed drive cycle. This dataset is used to derive a prediction model for vehicle velocity for the next 10 seconds, which is a range which has a significant FE improvement potential. This achieved 10 second vehicle velocity prediction is then compared to perfect full drive cycle prediction, perfect 10 second prediction.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

2019-04-02
2019-01-1006
The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic bird’s eye view for warnings. Sixteen drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and dynamics of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking after receiving the warning, workload and subject preference.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Dual Unit System Cool-Down Optimization Using a DFSS Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-0892
Automotive AC systems are typically either single unit or dual unit systems, while the dual unit systems have an additional rear evaporator. The refrigerant evaporates inside these heat exchangers by taking heat and condensing the moisture from the recirculated or fresh air that is being pushed into the car cabin by air blowers. This incoming cold air in turn brings the cabin temperature and humidity to a level that is comfortable for the passengers. These HVAC units have their own thermal expansion valve to set the refrigerant flow, but both are connected to the main AC refrigerant loop. The airflows, however, are controlled independently for front and rear unit that can affect the temperature and amount of air coming into the cabin from each location and consequently the overall cabin cool-down performance.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Journal Article

Optimization of Catalytic Converter Design to Improve Under-Hood Thermal Management

2019-04-02
2019-01-1263
The Catalytic Converter along with the inlet pipe and heat shields are part of the exhaust system that emits powerful heat to the surrounding components. With increasing need for tight under-hood spaces it is very critical to manage the heat emitted by the exhausts that may significantly increase temperature of surrounding components. In this paper a design methodology for catalytic converter has been applied which optimizes the design of the catalytic converter to reduce the surface temperature. The exhaust surface temperature is simulated as a function of time to account for transient effects. The simulation also considers various duty cycles such as road load, city traffic and grade driving conditions. To control the heat output of the exhaust system to the surrounding components different materials and properties of catalytic converter have been considered to reduce radiative heat transfer.
Journal Article

Analyzing and Preventing Data Privacy Leakage in Connected Vehicle Services

2019-04-02
2019-01-0478
The rapid development of connected and automated vehicle technologies together with cloud-based mobility services are revolutionizing the transportation industry. As a result, huge amounts of data are being generated, collected, and utilized, hence providing tremendous business opportunities. However, this big data poses serious challenges mainly in terms of data privacy. The risks of privacy leakage are amplified by the information sharing nature of emerging mobility services and the recent advances in data analytics. In this paper, we provide an overview of the connected vehicle landscape and point out potential privacy threats. We demonstrate two of the risks, namely additional individual information inference and user de-anonymization, through concrete attack designs. We also propose corresponding countermeasures to defend against such privacy attacks. We evaluate the feasibility of such attacks and our defense strategies using real world vehicular data.
Technical Paper

A Robust Structure Analysis on Automotive Door Armrest

2019-01-09
2019-26-0006
An automobile door is one vital commodity which has its role in vehicle’s function, strength, safety, dynamics and aesthetic parameters. The door system comprises of individual components and sub-assemblies such as door upper, bolster, armrest, door main panel, map-pocket, handle, speaker and tweeter grille. Among them, armrest is an integral part which provides function and also takes care of some safety parameter for the customers. The basic function of an armrest is to provide ergonomic relief to occupant for resting his hand. Along with this, it also facilitates occupant safety during a side impact collision by absorbing the energy and not imparting the reactive force on occupant. Thus an armrest has evolved as a feature of passive safety. The armrest design should be stiff enough to withstand required elbow load condition with-in the acceptable deflection criteria. On the other hand, armrest has to absorb the dynamic force by deflecting proportionally to the side impact load.
Technical Paper

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

2018-05-30
2018-37-0026
The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal sub-system loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below −10 °C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Flow Control Devices in Support of Vehicle Drag Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0713
Flow control devices can enable vehicle drag reduction through the mitigation of separation and by modifying local and global flow features. Passive vortex generators (VG) are an example of a flow control device that can be designed to re-energize weakly-attached boundary layers to prevent or minimize separation regions that can increase drag. Accurate numerical simulation of such devices and their impact on the vehicle aerodynamics is an important step towards enabling automated drag reduction and shape optimization for a wide range of vehicle concepts. This work demonstrates the use of an open-source computational-fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to enable an accurate and robust evaluation of passive vortex generators in support of vehicle drag reduction. Specifically, the backlight separation of the Ahmed body with a 25° slant is used to evaluate different turbulence models including variants of the RANS, DES, and LES formulations.
Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Infrared Borescopic Evaluation of High-Energy and Long-Duration Ignition Systems for Lean/Dilute Combustion in Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1149
Natural gas (NG) is attractive for heavy-duty (HD) engines for reasons of cost stability, emissions, and fuel security. NG cannot be reliably compression-ignited, but conventional gasoline ignition systems are not optimized for NG and are challenged to ignite mixtures that are lean or diluted with exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR). NG ignition is particularly challenging in large-bore engines, where completing combustion in the available time is more difficult. Using two high-speed infrared (IR) cameras with borescopic access to one cylinder of an HD NG engine, the effect of ignition system on the early flame-kernel development and cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) was investigated. Imaging in the IR yielded strong signals from water emission lines, which located the flame front and burned-gas regions and obviated image intensifiers. A 9.7-liter, six-cylinder engine was modified to enable exhaust-gas recirculation and to provide optical access.
Technical Paper

Cooling Parasitic Considerations for Optimal Sizing and Power Split Strategy for Military Robot Powered by Hydrogen Fuel Cells

2018-04-03
2018-01-0798
Military vehicles are typically armored, hence the open surface area for heat rejection is limited. Hence, the cooling parasitic load for a given heat rejection can be considerably higher and important to consider upfront in the system design. Since PEMFCs operate at low temp, the required cooling flow is larger to account for the smaller delta temperature to the air. This research aims to address the combined problem of optimal sizing of the lithium ion battery and PEM Fuel Cell stack along with development of the scalable power split strategy for small a PackBot robot. We will apply scalable physics-based models of the fuel cell stack and balance of plant that includes a realistic and scalable parasitic load from cooling integrated with existing scalable models of the lithium ion battery. This model allows the combined optimization that captures the dominant trends relevant to component sizing and system performance.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Analysis of Periodic Cruise Control Strategies for Power-Split HEVs at Medium and Low Speed

2018-04-03
2018-01-0871
Hybridization of vehicles is considered as the most promising technology for automakers and researchers, facing the challenge of optimizing both the fuel economy and emission of the road transport. Extensive studies have been performed on power-split hybrid electric vehicles (PS-HEVs). Despite of the fact that their excellent fuel economy performance in city driving conditions has been witnessed, a bottle neck for further improving the fuel economy of PS-HEVs has been encountered due to the inherent engine-generator-motor power circulation of the power-split system under medium-low speed cruising scenarios. Due to the special mechanical constraints of the power-split device (PSD), the conventional periodic cruising strategy like Pulse and Glide cannot be applied to PS-HEVs directly.
Technical Paper

Optimal Water Jacket Flow Distribution Using a New Group-Based Space-Filling Design of Experiments Algorithm

2018-04-03
2018-01-1017
The availability of computational resources has enabled an increased utilization of Design of Experiments (DoE) and metamodeling (response surface generation) for large-scale optimization problems. Despite algorithmic advances however, the analysis of systems such as water jackets of an automotive engine, can be computationally demanding in part due to the required accuracy of metamodels. Because the metamodels may have many inputs, their accuracy depends on the number of training points and how well they cover the entire design (input) space. For this reason, the space-filling properties of the DoE are very important. This paper utilizes a new group-based DoE algorithm with space-filling groups of points to construct a metamodel. Points are added sequentially so that the space-filling properties of the entire group of points is preserved. The addition of points is continuous until a specified metamodel accuracy is met.
Technical Paper

Study of Effects of Thermal Insulation Techniques on a Catalytic Converter for Reducing Cold Start Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1431
Previous work done at the University of Michigan shows the capability of the vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC) to retain heat during soak and the resulting benefits in reducing cold start emissions. This paper provides an improved version of the design which overcomes some of the shortcomings of the previous model and further improves the applicability and benefits of VICC. Also, newer materials have been evaluated and their effects on heat retention and emissions have studied using the 1-D after treatment model. Cold start emissions constitute around 60% to 80% of all the hydrocarbon and CO emissions in present day vehicles. The time taken to achieve the catalyst light-off temperature in a three-way catalytic converter significantly affects the emissions and fuel efficiency. The current work aims at developing a method to retain heat in catalytic converter, thus avoiding the need for light-off and reducing cold start emissions effectively.
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