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Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on End of Injection Spray Characteristics of Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injectors

2019-10-22
2019-01-2600
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Finite Element and Hybrid Finite Element Results to Test Data for the Vibration of a Production Car Body

2019-06-05
2019-01-1530
The Hybrid Finite Element Analysis (HFEA) method is based on combining conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solutions and energy methods for mid-frequency computations. The method is appropriate for computing the vibration of structures which are comprised by stiff load bearing components and flexible panels attached to them; and for considering structure-borne loadings with the excitations applied on the load bearing members. In such situations, the difficulty in using conventional FEA at higher frequencies originates from requiring a very large number of elements in order to capture the flexible wavelength of the panel members which are present in a structure. In the HFEA the conventional FEA model is modified by de-activating the bending behavior of the flexible panels in the FEA computations and introducing instead a large number of dynamic impedance elements for representing the omitted bending behavior of the panels.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Modeling and Optimization of a Submarine Pressure Hull

2019-06-05
2019-01-1498
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been validated in the past through comparison with test data for computing the structural vibration and the radiated noise for Naval systems in the mid to high frequency range. A main benefit of the method is that it enables fast computations for full scale models. This capability is exploited by using the EFEA for a submarine pressure hull design optimization study. A generic but representative pressure hull is considered. Design variables associated with the dimensions of the king frames, the thickness of the pressure hull in the vicinity of the excitation (the latter is considered to be applied on the king frames of the machinery room), the dimensions of the frames, and the damping applied on the hull are adjusted during the optimization process in order to minimize the radiated noise in the frequency range from 1,000Hz to 16,000Hz.
Technical Paper

Extended Kalman Filter Based Road Friction Coefficient Estimation and Experimental Verification

2019-04-02
2019-01-0176
Accurate road friction coefficient is crucial for the proper functioning of active chassis control systems. However, road friction coefficient is difficult to be measured directly. Using the available onboard sensors, a model-based Extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is proposed in this paper to estimate road friction coefficient. In the development of estimation algorithm, vehicle motion states such as sideslip angle, yaw rate and vehicle speed are first estimated. Then, road friction coefficient estimator is designed using nonlinear vehicle model together with the pre-estimated vehicle motion states. The proposed estimation algorithm is validated by both simulations and tests on a scaled model vehicle.
Technical Paper

On Collecting High Quality Labeled Data for Automatic Transportation Mode Detection

2019-04-02
2019-01-0921
With the recent advancements in sensing and processing capabilities of consumer mobile devices (e.g., smartphone, tablet, etc.), they are becoming attractive choices for pervasive computing applications. Always-on monitoring of human movement patterns is one of those applications that has gained a lot of importance in the field of mobility and transportation research. Automatic detection of the current transportation mode (e.g., walking, biking, riding a shuttle, etc.) of a consumer using data from their smartphone sensors enables delivering of a number of customized services for multi-modal journey planning. Most accurate models for automatic mode detection are trained with supervised learning algorithms. In order to achieve high accuracy, the training datasets need to be sufficiently large, diverse, and correctly labeled.
Technical Paper

Automatic Speech Recognition System Considerations for the Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0861
As automakers begin to design the autonomous vehicle (AV) for the first time, they must reconsider customer interaction with the Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system carried over from the traditional vehicle. Within an AV, the voice-to-ASR system needs to be capable of serving a customer located in any seat of the car. These shifts in focus require changes to the microphone selection and placement to serve the entire vehicle. Further complicating the scenario are new sources of noise that are specific to the AV that enable autonomous operation. Hardware mounted on the roof that are used to support cameras and LIDAR sensors, and mechanisms meant to keep that hardware clean and functioning, add even further noise contamination that can pollute the voice interaction. In this paper, we discuss the ramifications of picking up the intended customer’s voice when they are no longer bound to the traditional front left “driver’s” seat.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

2019-04-02
2019-01-1006
The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic bird’s eye view for warnings. Sixteen drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and dynamics of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking after receiving the warning, workload and subject preference.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning with Decision Trees and Multi-Armed Bandits: An Interactive Vehicle Recommender System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1079
Recommender systems guide a user to useful objects in a large space of possible options in a personalized way. In this paper, we study recommender systems for vehicles. Compared to previous research on recommender systems in other domains (e.g., movies or music), there are two major challenges associated with recommending vehicles. First, typical customers purchase fewer cars than movies or pieces of music. Thus, it is difficult to obtain rich information about a customer’s vehicle purchase history. Second, content information obtained about a customer (e.g., demographics, vehicle preferences, etc.) is also difficult to acquire during a relatively short stay in a dealership. To address these two challenges, we propose an interactive vehicle recommender system based a novel machine learning method that integrates decision trees and multi-armed bandits. Decision tree learning effectively selects important questions to ask the customer and encodes the customer's key preferences.
Technical Paper

Wheel Power in Urban and Extra-Urban Driving for xEV Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-1080
Electrified powertrains respond to driver demand for vehicle acceleration by producing power through either the electric drive system or an on-board combustion engine or both. In Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs), the powertrain provides the purest form of transportation when responding to driver demand through the electric drive system. We develop a method to size the electric drive system in PHEVs to provide zero emission driving in densely populated urban regions. We use real world data from Europe and calculate instantaneous wheel power during trips. Ray tracing is used to identify the regions where trips occur and the population density of these regions is obtained from an open source dataset published by Eurostat. Regions are categorized by their population density into urban and extra-urban regions. Real world data from these regions is analyzed to determine the wheel power required in urban and extra-urban settings.
Technical Paper

Closed-Form Structural Stress Solutions for Spot Welds in Square Plates under Central Bending Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1114
A new closed-form structural stress solution for a spot weld in a square thin plate under central bending conditions is derived based on the thin plate theory. The spot weld is treated as a rigid inclusion and the plate is treated as a thin plate. The boundary conditions follow those of the published solution for a rigid inclusion in a square plate under counter bending conditions. The new closed-form solution indicates that structural stress solution near the rigid inclusion on the surface of the plate along the symmetry plane is larger than those for a rigid inclusion in an infinite plate and a finite circular plate with pinned and clamped outer boundaries under central bending conditions. When the radius distance becomes large and approaches to the outer boundary, the new analytical stress solution approaches to the reference stress whereas the other analytical solutions do not.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analyses of Structural Stresses near Dissimilar Spot Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens

2019-04-02
2019-01-1112
Structural stress distributions near nearly rigid, dissimilar and similar spot joints in lap-shear specimens are investigated by 3-D finite element analyses. A set of accurate closed-form structural stress solutions is first presented. The closed-form structural stress solutions were derived for a rigid inclusion in a square thin plate under various loading conditions with the weak boundary conditions along outer edges or semi-circular paths by satisfying the equilibrium conditions. Finite element analyses with different joint material behaviors, element types and mesh designs are conducted to examine the structural stress solutions near the spot joints in lap-shear specimens. The results of the finite element analyses indicate that the computational structural stress solutions on the edge of the joint depend on the joint material behavior, element type, and mesh design.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Validating Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) Using Two Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation Benches

2019-04-02
2019-01-1038
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is becoming a common feature in modern day vehicles with the advancement of Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADAS). Simultaneously, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation has emerged as a major component of the automotive product development cycle as it can accelerate product development and validation by supplementing in-vehicle testing. Specifically, HIL simulation has become an integral part of the controls development and validation V-cycles by enabling rapid prototyping of control software for Electronic Control Units (ECUs). Traditionally, ACC algorithms have been validated on a system or subsystem HIL bench with the ACC ECU in the loop such that the HIL bench acts as the host or trailing vehicle with the target or preceding vehicle usually simulated using as an object that follows a pre-defined motion profile.
Technical Paper

Security in Wireless Powertrain Networking through Machine Learning Localization

2019-04-02
2019-01-1046
This paper demonstrates a solution to the security problem for automotive wireless powertrain networking. That is, the security for wireless automotive networking requires a localization function before we allow a node to join the network. We explain why for powertrain wireless networking, this ability of identifying the precise location of a communicating wireless node is critical. In this paper, we explore existing methods that others have used to implement localization for wireless networking. Then, we apply machine-learning techniques to a dataset that has localization information associated with received signal strength indication. We reveal insights provided by our dataset though an exploration with statistics and visualization. We then present our problem in terms of pattern recognition via multiple techniques, including Naïve Bayes Classifier and Artificial Neural Networks.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Velocity Prediction and Energy Management Strategy Part 1: Deterministic and Stochastic Vehicle Velocity Prediction Using Machine Learning

2019-04-02
2019-01-1051
There is a pressing need to develop accurate and robust approaches for predicting vehicle speed to enhance fuel economy/energy efficiency, drivability and safety of automotive vehicles. This paper details outcomes of research into various methods for the prediction of vehicle velocity. The focus is on short-term predictions over 1 to 10 second prediction horizon. Such short-term predictions can be integrated into a hybrid electric vehicle energy management strategy and have the potential to improve HEV energy efficiency. Several deterministic and stochastic models are considered in this paper for prediction of future vehicle velocity. Deterministic models include an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, a Nonlinear Auto-Regressive with eXternal input (NARX) shallow neural network and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep neural network. Stochastic models include a Markov Chain (MC) model and a Conditional Linear Gaussian (CLG) model.
Technical Paper

Study of Optimization Strategy for Vehicle Restraint System Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-1072
Vehicle restraint systems are optimized to maximize occupant safety and achieve high safety ratings. The optimization formulation often involves the inclusion or exclusion of restraint features as discrete design variables, as well as continuous restraint design variables such as airbag firing time, airbag vent size, inflator power level, etc. The optimization problem is constrained by injury criteria such as Head Injury Criterion (HIC), chest deflection, chest acceleration, neck tension/compression, etc., which ensures the vehicle meets or exceeds all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) requirements. Typically, Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimizations are applied because of their capability to handle discrete and continuous variables simultaneously and their ability to jump out of regions with multiple local optima, particularly for this type of highly non-linear problems.
Technical Paper

Research on the Driving Stability Control System of the Dual-Motor Drive Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0436
In order to improve the steering stability of the dual-motor drive electric vehicle, Taking the yaw rate and the sideslip angle as the control variables, Using the improved two degree of freedom linear dynamic model and seven degree of freedom nonlinear vehicle dynamics model, The hierarchical structure is used to establish the dual-motor drive electric vehicle steering stability control strategy which consist of the upper direct yaw moment decision-making layer based on the sliding mode controller and the lower additional yaw moment distribution layer based on the optimization theory. The Matlab/Simulink-Carsim joint simulation platform was built. The control strategy proposed in this paper was simulated and verified under the snake test condition and double-line shift test condition.
Technical Paper

Survey of Automotive Privacy Regulations and Privacy-Related Attacks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0479
Privacy has been a rising concern. The European Union has established a privacy standard called General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in May 2018. Furthermore, the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data incident made headlines in March 2018. Data collection from vehicles by OEM platforms is increasingly popular and may offer OEMs new business models but it comes with the risk of privacy leakages. Vehicular sensor data shared with third-parties can lead to misuse of the requested data for other purposes than stated/intended. There exists a relevant regulation document introduced by the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (“Auto Alliance”), which classifies the vehicular sensors used for data collection as covered and non-sensitive parameters.
Technical Paper

Integrating SOTIF and Agile Systems Engineering

2019-04-02
2019-01-0141
Autonomous vehicles and advanced driver assistance systems have functionality realized across numerous distributed systems that interact with a dynamic cyber-physical environment. This complexity raises the potential for emergent behaviours which are not intended for the system’s operational use. The need to analyze the intended functionality of these emergent behaviours for potential hazards, which may occur in absence of faults, are aspects of the ISO PAS 21448, Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) [1]. The Safety of the Intended Functionality or SOTIF is a framework for developing systems which are free from unreasonable risk due to the intended functionality or performance limitations of a system which is free from faults. This is meant to complement Functional Safety which is covered in ISO 26262 [2]. The major focus of SOTIF is to aid in the functional development of a system.
Technical Paper

A Fault Tolerant Time Interval Process for Functional Safety Development

2019-04-02
2019-01-0110
During development of complex automotive technologies, a significant engineering effort is often dedicated to ensuring the safe performance of these systems. An important aspect to consider when assessing the viability of different safety designs or strategies is the time period from the occurrence of a fault to the violation of a Safety Goal (SG). This time period is commonly referred to as the Fault Tolerant Time Interval (FTTI). In Automotive Safety, ISO 26262 [1] calls for the identification and appropriate partitioning of the FTTI, however very little guidance is provided on how to do this. This paper presents a process, covering the entire safety development lifecycle, for the identification of timing constraints and the development of associated requirements necessary to prevent Safety Goal violations.
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