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Technical Paper

Design of Experiments for Effects and Interactions during Brake Emissions Testing Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-09-15
2019-01-2139
The investigation and measurement of particle emissions from foundation brakes require the use of a special adaptation of inertia dynamometer test systems. To have proper measurements for particle mass and particle number, the sampling system needs to minimize transport losses and reduce residence times inside the brake enclosure. Existing models and spreadsheets estimate key transport losses (diffusion, turbophoretic, contractions, gravitational, bends, and sampling isokinetics). A significant limitation of such models is that they cannot assess the turbulent flow and associated particle dynamics inside the brake enclosure; which are anticipated to be important. This paper presents a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow within a dynamometer enclosure under relevant operating conditions. The systematic approach allows the quantification of turbulence intensity, mean velocity profiles, and residence times.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

2019-04-02
2019-01-1006
The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic bird’s eye view for warnings. Sixteen drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and dynamics of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking after receiving the warning, workload and subject preference.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1217
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans.
Technical Paper

Application of Empirical Asperity Contact Model to High Fidelity Wet Clutch System Simulations

2019-04-02
2019-01-1301
Wet clutches are complex hydrodynamic devices used in both conventional and electrified drivetrain systems. They couple or de-couple powertrain components for applications such as automatic shifting, engine disconnect and torque vectoring. Clutch engagement behaviors vary greatly, depending on design parameters and operating conditions. Because of their direct impact on vehicle drivability and fuel economy, a predictive CAE model is desired for enabling analytical design verification processes. During engagement, a wet clutch transmits torque through viscous shear and asperity contact. A conventional Coulomb’s model, which is routinely utilized in shift simulations, is inadequate to capture non-linear hydrodynamic effects for higher fidelity analysis. Extensive research has been conducted over the years to derive hydrodynamic torque transfer models based on 1D squeeze film or 3D CFD. They are typically coupled with an elastic asperity contact model for mechanical torque transfer.
Journal Article

Development of Empirical Asperity Contact Model for Wet Friction Material

2019-04-02
2019-01-0346
A wet clutch couples or decouples gear elements to alter torque paths in an automatic transmission system. During the gear shifting event, the clutch torque is directly transmitted to the output shaft. Hence, clutch torque heavily influences the dynamics of the transmission. In order to evaluate the behavior of the transmission early and efficiently, the development process increasingly relies on high-fidelity transmission system simulations with added complexity. However, a wet clutch continues to be modeled using Coulomb’s friction in a typical shift simulation. Its linear framework does not physically represent non-linear hydrodynamic effects due to the presence of oil layer during clutch engagement. To make up the lack of physics, Coulomb’s clutch model often requires extensive tuning to match actual shift behaviors.
Technical Paper

Sensations Associated with Motion Sickness Response during Passenger Vehicle Operations on a Test Track

2019-04-02
2019-01-0687
Motion sickness in road vehicles may become an increasingly important problem as automation transforms drivers into passengers. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute has developed a vehicle-based platform to study motion sickness in passenger vehicles. A test-track study was conducted with 52 participants who reported susceptibility to motion sickness. The participants completed in-vehicle testing on a 20-minute scripted, continuous drive that consisted of a series of frequent 90-degree turns, braking, and lane changes at the U-M Mcity facility. In addition to quantifying their level of motion sickness on a numerical scale, participants were asked to describe in words any motion-sickness-related sensations they experienced.
Technical Paper

Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0399
There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility.
Technical Paper

A Study of Age-Related Thoracic Injury in Frontal Crashes using Analytic Morphomics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0549
The purpose of this study was to use detailed medical information to evaluate thoracic injuries in elderly patients in real world frontal crashes. In this study, we used analytic morphomics to predict the effect of torso geometry on rib fracture, a major source of injury for the elderly. Analytic morphomics extracts body features from computed tomography (CT) scans of patients in a semi-automated fashion. Thoracic injuries were examined in front row occupants involved in frontal crashes from the International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database. Among these occupants, two age groups (age < 60 yr. [Nonelderly] and age ≥ 60 yr. [Elderly]) who suffered severe thoracic injury were analyzed. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate injury outcomes using variables for vehicle, demographics, and morphomics. Compared to the nonelderly group, the elderly group sustained more rib fractures.
Journal Article

In-Vehicle Characterization of Wet Clutch Engagement Behaviors in Automatic Transmission Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0395
A new generation of a planetary-gear-based automatic transmission system is designed with an increasing number of ratio steps. It requires synchronous operation of one or more wet clutches, to achieve a complex shift event. A missed synchronization results in drive torque disturbance which may be perceived by vehicle occupants as an undesirable shift shock. Accurate knowledge of clutch behaviors in an actual vehicle environment is indispensable for achieving precise clutch controls and reducing shift calibration effort. Wet clutches are routinely evaluated on an industry-standard SAE#2 tester during the clutch design process. While it is a valuable tool for screening relative frictional behaviors, clutch engagement data from a SAE#2 tester do not correlate well with vehicle shift behaviors due to the limited reproducibility of realistic slip, actuator force profiles, and lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Flow Control Devices in Support of Vehicle Drag Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0713
Flow control devices can enable vehicle drag reduction through the mitigation of separation and by modifying local and global flow features. Passive vortex generators (VG) are an example of a flow control device that can be designed to re-energize weakly-attached boundary layers to prevent or minimize separation regions that can increase drag. Accurate numerical simulation of such devices and their impact on the vehicle aerodynamics is an important step towards enabling automated drag reduction and shape optimization for a wide range of vehicle concepts. This work demonstrates the use of an open-source computational-fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to enable an accurate and robust evaluation of passive vortex generators in support of vehicle drag reduction. Specifically, the backlight separation of the Ahmed body with a 25° slant is used to evaluate different turbulence models including variants of the RANS, DES, and LES formulations.
Technical Paper

Measured and LES Motored-Flow Kinetic Energy Evolution in the TCC-III Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0192
A primary goal of large eddy simulation, LES, is to capture in-cylinder cycle-to-cycle variability, CCV. This is a first step to assess the efficacy of 35 consecutive computed motored cycles to capture the kinetic energy in the TCC-III engine. This includes both the intra-cycle production and dissipation as well as the kinetic energy CCV. The approach is to sample and compare the simulated three-dimensional velocity equivalently to the available two-component two-dimensional PIV velocity measurements. The volume-averaged scale-resolved kinetic energy from the LES is sampled in three slabs, which are volumes equal to the two axial and one azimuthal PIV fields-of-view and laser sheet thickness. Prior to the comparison, the effects of sampling a cutting plane versus a slab and slabs of different thicknesses are assessed. The effects of sampling only two components and three discrete planar regions is assessed.
Technical Paper

Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

2017-11-17
2017-01-5020
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles. For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Two RVE Modelling Methods for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0224
To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Vehicle Occupant Body Dimensions and Postures Using a Statistical Body Shape Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0497
Reliable, accurate data on vehicle occupant characteristics could be used to personalize the occupant experience, potentially improving both satisfaction and safety. Recent improvements in 3D camera technology and increased use of cameras in vehicles offer the capability to effectively capture data on vehicle occupant characteristics, including size, shape, posture, and position. In previous work, the body dimensions of standing individuals were reliably estimated by fitting a statistical body shape model (SBSM) to data from a consumer-grade depth camera (Microsoft Kinect). In the current study, the methodology was extended to consider seated vehicle occupants. The SBSM used in this work was developed using laser scan data gathered from 147 children with stature ranging from 100 to 160 cm and BMI from 12 to 27 kg/m2 in various sitting postures.
Journal Article

Two-Phase MRF Model for Wet Clutch Drag Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1127
Wet clutch packs are widely used in today’s automatic transmission systems for gear-ratio shifting. The frictional interfaces between the clutch plates are continuously lubricated with transmission fluid for both thermal and friction management. The open clutch packs shear transmission fluid across the rotating plates, contributing to measurable energy losses. A typical multi-speed transmission includes as many as 5 clutch packs. Of those, two to three clutches are open at any time during a typical drive cycle, presenting an opportunity for fuel economy gain. However, reducing open clutch drag is very challenging, while meeting cooling requirements and shift quality targets. In practice, clutch design adjustment is performed through trial-and-error evaluation of hardware on a test bench. The use of analytical methodologies is limited for optimizing clutch design features due to the complexity of fluid-structure interactions under rotating conditions.
Journal Article

Reduction of Steering Effort in the Event of EPAS Failure using Differential Braking Assisted Steering

2017-03-28
2017-01-1489
Electric Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) is widely adopted in modern vehicles to reduce steering effort. It is probable that some EPAS systems will experience a shutdown due to reliability issues stemming from electrical and/or electronic components. In the event of EPAS failure, power assist becomes unavailable and the steering system reverts to a fully manual state, leading to excessive steering torque demands from the driver to maneuver the vehicle at lower speeds, i.e., under 30 mph. This situation has resulted in dozens of reported crashes and several OEM safety recalls in the past few years. Inspired by recent work which utilizes independent driving torque of in-wheel-motor vehicles to reduce steering torque, this paper proposes the use of Differential Braking Assisted Steering (DBAS) to alleviate steep increases in steering torque upon EPAS failure. DBAS requires software upgrades with minimal hardware modification to EPAS, which is preferable for a backup system.
Journal Article

Accuracy and Robustness of Parallel Vehicle Mass and Road Grade Estimation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1586
A variety of vehicle controls, from active safety systems to power management algorithms, can greatly benefit from accurate, reliable, and robust real-time estimates of vehicle mass and road grade. This paper develops a parallel mass and grade (PMG) estimation scheme and presents the results of a study investigating its accuracy and robustness in the presence of various noise factors. An estimate of road grade is calculated by comparing the acceleration as measured by an on-board longitudinal accelerometer with that obtained by differentiation of the undriven wheel speeds. Mass is independently estimated by means of a longitudinal dynamics model and a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm using the longitudinal accelerometer to isolate grade effects. To account for the influences of acceleration-induced vehicle pitching on PMG estimation accuracy, a correction factor is developed from controlled tests under a wide range of throttle levels.
Technical Paper

Steering System Noise Evaluation

2016-06-15
2016-01-1832
Intermediate shaft assembly is used to connect steering gear to the steering wheel. The primary function of the intermediate shaft is to transfer torsional loads. There is a high probability of noise propagating through the Intermediate shaft to the driver. The current standard for measuring the noise is by performing vehicle level subjective evaluations. If improperly clamped at either of the yokes, a sudden change in the direction of the torsional load on the Intermediate shaft can generate a displeasing noise. Noise can also be generated from the constant velocity joint. Intermediate shaft noise can be measured using a microphone or can be correlated to acceleration values. The benefit of measuring the acceleration over sound pressure level is the reduction of complexity of the test environment and test set up. The nature of the noise in question requires the filtering of low frequency data. This paper presents a new test procedure that has been developed by General Motors.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Seat Index Point Tool for Military Seats

2016-04-05
2016-01-0309
This study evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT) as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was fabricated based on the ISO specification and a custom back-angle measurement probe was designed and fitted to the SIPT. Comparisons between the two tools in a wide range of seating conditions showed that the mean SIP location was 5 mm aft of the H-point, with a standard deviation of 7.8 mm. Vertical location was not significantly different between the two tools (mean - 0.7 mm, sd 4.0 mm). A high correlation (r=0.9) was observed between the back angle measurements from the two tools. The SIPT was slightly more repeatable across installations and installers than the J826 manikin, with most of the discrepancy arising from situations with flat seat cushion angles and either unusually upright or reclined back angles that caused the J826 manikin to be unstable.
Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Crash Analysis and Countermeasures to Improve Occupant Safety

2015-09-29
2015-01-2868
This paper examines truck driver injury and loss of life in truck crashes related to cab crashworthiness. The paper provides analysis of truck driver fatality and injury in crashes to provide a better understanding of how injury occurs and industry initiatives focused on reducing the number of truck occupant fatalities and the severity of injuries. The commercial vehicle focus is on truck-tractors and single unit trucks in the Class 7 and 8 weight range. The analysis used UMTRI's Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey file and NHTSA's General Estimates System (GES) file for categorical analysis and the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) for a supplemental clinical review of cab performance in frontal and rollover crash types. The paper includes analysis of crashes producing truck driver fatalities or injuries, a review of regulatory development and industry safety initiatives including barriers to implementation.
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