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Technical Paper

Design of Experiments for Effects and Interactions during Brake Emissions Testing Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-09-15
2019-01-2139
The investigation and measurement of particle emissions from foundation brakes require the use of a special adaptation of inertia dynamometer test systems. To have proper measurements for particle mass and particle number, the sampling system needs to minimize transport losses and reduce residence times inside the brake enclosure. Existing models and spreadsheets estimate key transport losses (diffusion, turbophoretic, contractions, gravitational, bends, and sampling isokinetics). A significant limitation of such models is that they cannot assess the turbulent flow and associated particle dynamics inside the brake enclosure; which are anticipated to be important. This paper presents a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow within a dynamometer enclosure under relevant operating conditions. The systematic approach allows the quantification of turbulence intensity, mean velocity profiles, and residence times.
Technical Paper

Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0399
There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility.
Technical Paper

Comfortable Head and Neck Postures in Reclined Seating for Use in Automobile Head Rest Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-0408
Little information is available on passenger preferences for posture and support in highly reclined seat configurations. To address this gap, a laboratory study was conducted with 24 adult passengers at seat back angles from 23 to 53 degrees. Passenger preferences for head and neck posture with and without head support were recorded. This paper presents the characteristics of the passengers’ preferred head support with respect to thorax, head, and neck posture.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different ADAS Features in Vehicle Displays

2019-04-02
2019-01-1006
The current study presents the results of an experiment on driver performance including reaction time, eye-attention movement, mental workload, and subjective preference when different features of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) warnings (Forward Collision Warning) are displayed, including different locations (HDD (Head-Down Display) vs HUD (Head-Up Display)), modality of warning (text vs. pictographic), and a new concept that provides a dynamic bird’s eye view for warnings. Sixteen drivers drove a high-fidelity driving simulator integrated with display prototypes of the features. Independent variables were displayed as modality, location, and dynamics of the warnings with driver performance as the dependent variable including driver reaction time to the warning, EORT (Eyes-Off-Road-Time) during braking after receiving the warning, workload and subject preference.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload in an Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0872
As intelligent automated vehicle technologies evolve, there is a greater need to understand and define the role of the human user, whether completely hands-off (L5) or partly hands-on. At all levels of automation, the human occupant may feel anxious or ill-at-ease. This may reflect as higher stress/workload. The study in this paper further refines how perceived workload may be determined based on occupant physiological measures. Because of great variation in individual personalities, age, driving experiences, gender, etc., a generic model applicable to all could not be developed. Rather, individual workload models that used physiological and vehicle measures were developed.
Technical Paper

Survey of Automotive Privacy Regulations and Privacy-Related Attacks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0479
Privacy has been a rising concern. The European Union has established a privacy standard called General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in May 2018. Furthermore, the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data incident made headlines in March 2018. Data collection from vehicles by OEM platforms is increasingly popular and may offer OEMs new business models but it comes with the risk of privacy leakages. Vehicular sensor data shared with third-parties can lead to misuse of the requested data for other purposes than stated/intended. There exists a relevant regulation document introduced by the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (“Auto Alliance”), which classifies the vehicular sensors used for data collection as covered and non-sensitive parameters.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1217
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans.
Technical Paper

Sensations Associated with Motion Sickness Response during Passenger Vehicle Operations on a Test Track

2019-04-02
2019-01-0687
Motion sickness in road vehicles may become an increasingly important problem as automation transforms drivers into passengers. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute has developed a vehicle-based platform to study motion sickness in passenger vehicles. A test-track study was conducted with 52 participants who reported susceptibility to motion sickness. The participants completed in-vehicle testing on a 20-minute scripted, continuous drive that consisted of a series of frequent 90-degree turns, braking, and lane changes at the U-M Mcity facility. In addition to quantifying their level of motion sickness on a numerical scale, participants were asked to describe in words any motion-sickness-related sensations they experienced.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Optimization of Seat and Suspension Parameters for Occupant Ride Comfort in a Passenger Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1404
This study presents a methodology for comparative analysis of seat and suspension parameters on a system level to achieve minimum occupant head displacement and acceleration, thereby improving occupant ride comfort. A lumped-parameter full-vehicle ride model with seat structures, seat cushions and five occupants has been used. Two different vehicle masses are considered. A low amplitude pulse signal is provided as the road disturbance input. The peak vertical displacement and acceleration of the occupant’s head due to the road disturbance are determined and used as measures of ride comfort. Using a design of experiments approach, the most critical seat cushion, seat structure and suspension parameters and their interactions affecting the occupant head displacement and acceleration are determined. An optimum combination of parameters to achieve minimum peak vertical displacement and acceleration of the occupant’s head is identified using a response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

Personalized Driver Workload Estimation in Real-World Driving

2018-04-03
2018-01-0511
Drivers often engage in secondary in-vehicle activity that is not related to vehicle control. This may be functional and/or to relieve monotony. Regardless, drivers believe they can safely do so when their perceived workload is low. In this paper, we describe a data acquisition system and machine learning based algorithms to determine perceived workload. Data collected were from on-road driving in light and heavy traffic, and individual physiological measures were recorded while the driver also performed in-vehicle tasks. Initial results show how the workload function can be personalized to an individual, and what implications this may have for vehicle design.
Technical Paper

In-Vehicle Occupant Head Tracking Using aLow-Cost Depth Camera

2018-04-03
2018-01-1172
Analyzing dynamic postures of vehicle occupants in various situations is valuable for improving occupant accommodation and safety. Accurate tracking of an occupant’s head is of particular importance because the head has a large range of motion, controls gaze, and may require special protection in dynamic events including crashes. Previous vehicle occupant posture studies have primarily used marker-based optical motion capture systems or multiple video cameras for tracking facial features or markers on the head. However, the former approach has limitations for collecting on-road data, and the latter is limited by requiring intensive manual postprocessing to obtain suitable accuracy. This paper presents an automated on-road head tracking method using a single Microsoft Kinect V2 sensor, which uses a time-of-flight measurement principle to obtain a 3D point cloud representing objects in the scene at approximately 30 Hz.
Journal Article

In-Vehicle Characterization of Wet Clutch Engagement Behaviors in Automatic Transmission Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0395
A new generation of a planetary-gear-based automatic transmission system is designed with an increasing number of ratio steps. It requires synchronous operation of one or more wet clutches, to achieve a complex shift event. A missed synchronization results in drive torque disturbance which may be perceived by vehicle occupants as an undesirable shift shock. Accurate knowledge of clutch behaviors in an actual vehicle environment is indispensable for achieving precise clutch controls and reducing shift calibration effort. Wet clutches are routinely evaluated on an industry-standard SAE#2 tester during the clutch design process. While it is a valuable tool for screening relative frictional behaviors, clutch engagement data from a SAE#2 tester do not correlate well with vehicle shift behaviors due to the limited reproducibility of realistic slip, actuator force profiles, and lubrication conditions.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Flow Drill Screw Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6082-T6 Sheets Made with Different Processing Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1237
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets made with different processing conditions are investigated based on the experimental results and a structural stress fatigue life estimation model. Lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without clearance hole and lap-shear specimens with stripped FDS joints with clearance hole were made and then tested under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs show the failure modes of the FDS joints without clearance hole (with gap) and the stripped FDS joints with clearance hole under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The fatigue failure mode of the FDS joints without clearance hole (with gap) in lap-shear specimens is similar to those with clearance hole. The fatigue lives of lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without clearance hole are lower than those with clearance hole for given load ranges under cyclic loading conditions.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Flow Drill Screw Joints in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6082-T6 Sheets of Different Thicknesses

2018-04-03
2018-01-1239
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets of different thicknesses are investigated based on the experimental results and a structural stress fatigue life estimation model. Lap-shear specimens of different thicknesses with FDS joints with clearance hole were made and tested under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs show the failure modes of the FDS joints with clearance hole in lap-shear specimens of different thicknesses under quasi-static loading conditions. Under quasi-static loading conditions, as the thickness increases, the FDS joint failed from the penetration of the screw head into the upper sheet to the failure of the screw between the two sheets. Optical micrographs also show the failure modes of the FDS joints with clearance hole in lap-shear specimens of different thicknesses under cyclic loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Flow Control Devices in Support of Vehicle Drag Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0713
Flow control devices can enable vehicle drag reduction through the mitigation of separation and by modifying local and global flow features. Passive vortex generators (VG) are an example of a flow control device that can be designed to re-energize weakly-attached boundary layers to prevent or minimize separation regions that can increase drag. Accurate numerical simulation of such devices and their impact on the vehicle aerodynamics is an important step towards enabling automated drag reduction and shape optimization for a wide range of vehicle concepts. This work demonstrates the use of an open-source computational-fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to enable an accurate and robust evaluation of passive vortex generators in support of vehicle drag reduction. Specifically, the backlight separation of the Ahmed body with a 25° slant is used to evaluate different turbulence models including variants of the RANS, DES, and LES formulations.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Two RVE Modelling Methods for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0224
To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
Technical Paper

Paint Bake Influence on AA7075 and AA7085

2017-03-28
2017-01-1265
The typical paint bake cycle includes multiple ramps and dwells of temperature through e-coat, paint, and clear coat with exposure equivalent to approximately 190°C for up to 60 minutes. 7xxx-series aluminum alloys are heat treatable, additional thermal exposure such as a paint bake cycle could alter the material properties. Therefore, this study investigates the response of three 7xxx-series aluminum alloys with respect to conductivity, hardness, and yield strength when exposed to three oven curing cycles of a typical automotive paint operation. The results have indicated that alloy composition and artificial aging practice influence the material response to the various paint bake cycles.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Tire Health Monitoring System Using On-board Motion Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-1626
This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear.
Technical Paper

An Examination of Driver Eye Glance Behavior, Navigational Errors, and Subjective Assessments While Using In-Vehicle Navigational Systems With and Without Landmark Enhancements

2017-03-28
2017-01-1375
This study investigated the effects of three navigation system human-machine interfaces (HMIs) on driver eye-glance behavior, navigational errors, and subjective assessments. Thirty-six drivers drove an unfamiliar 3-segment route in downtown Detroit. HMIs were 2D or 3D (level-of-detail) electronic map display + standard voice prompts, or 3D map-display augmented by photorealistic images + landmark-enhanced voice prompts. Participants drove the same three route segments in order but were assigned a different HMI condition/segment in a 3-period/3-treatment crossover experimental design. Results indicate that drivers’ visual attention using the advanced navigation systems HMIs were within US Department of Transportation recommended visual distraction limits. More turns missed in the first route segment, regardless of HMI, were attributable to greater route complexity and a late-onset voice prompt. Participant’s ratings of HMIs were influenced by the context in which that HMI was used.
Technical Paper

Varying Levels of Reality in Human Factors Testing: Parallel Experiments at Mcity and in a Driving Simulator

2017-03-28
2017-01-1374
Mcity at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor provides a realistic off-roadway environment in which to test vehicles and drivers in complex traffic situations. It is intended for testing of various levels of vehicle automation, from advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) to fully self-driving vehicles. In a recent human factors study of interfaces for teen drivers, we performed parallel experiments in a driving simulator and Mcity. We implemented driving scenarios of moderate complexity (e.g., passing a vehicle parked on the right side of the road just before a pedestrian crosswalk, with the parked vehicle partially blocking the view of the crosswalk) in both the simulator and at Mcity.
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