Modifications of a Quad 4 Engine to Permit Late Intake Valve Closure
Previous studies have shown Late Intake Valve Closure (LIVC) through Variable Valve Timing (VVT) to offer reduced fuel consumption through reduced pumping work. Load modulation through the controlled phasing of one of two intake valves/cylinder is one means of accomplishing the LIVC strategy on a multi-valve engine. Experimental studies of LIVC show that cycle-to-cycle variations and reduced flame velocity in single or synchronized multiple intake valve engines are associated with performance which, though superior to throttled engine performance, falls short of its promised fuel economy. To examine if the higher mixture velocity promised by valve phasing relative to single or synchronized LIVC mitigates cycle-to-cycle variations and flame velocity defects, a modification of the Quad 4 engine has been designed and built and is, at the present writing, being tested. The design employs a third camshaft placed above the original intake valve camshaft.