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Technical Paper

Efficacy of In-Cylinder Control of Particulate Emissions to Meet Current and Future Regulatory Standards

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology has proven performance and reliability. However, the addition of a DPF adds significant cost and packaging constraints leading some manufacturers to design engines that reduce particulate matter in-cylinder. Such engines utilize high fuel injection pressure, moderate exhaust gas recirculation and modified injection timing to mitigate soot formation. This study examines such an engine designed to meet US EPA Interim Tier 4 standards for off-highway applications without a DPF. The engine was operated at four steady state modes and aerosol measurements were made using a two-stage, ejector dilution system with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) equipped with a catalytic stripper (CS) to differentiate semi-volatile versus solid components in the exhaust. Gaseous emissions were measured using an FTIR analyzer and particulate matter mass emissions were estimated using SMPS data and an assumed particle density function.
Journal Article

An Aerosolization Method for Characterizing Particle Contaminants in Diesel Fuel

Diesel fuel injection systems are operating at increasingly higher pressure (up to 250 MPa) with smaller clearances, making them more sensitive to diesel fuel contaminants. Most liquid particle counters have difficulty detecting particles <4 μm in diameter and are unable to distinguish between solid and semi-solid materials. The low conductivity of diesel fuel limits the use of the Coulter counter. This raises the need for a new method to characterize small (<4 μm) fuel contaminants. We propose and evaluate an aerosolization method for characterizing solid particulate matter in diesel fuel that can detect particles as small as 0.5 μm. The particle sizing and concentration performance of the method were calibrated and validated by the use of seed particles added to filtered diesel fuel. A size dependent correction method was developed to account for the preferential atomization and subsequent aerosol conditioning processes to obtain the liquid-borne particle concentration.
Technical Paper

An Alternative Method for Generating Ultra-Clean Dilution Air for Engine Emissions Measurements

Many engine exhaust emissions measurements require exhaust dilution. With low-emission engines, there is the possibility for contaminants in the dilution air to contribute artifacts to the emissions measurement. The objectives of this work are to discuss common methods used to clean the dilution air, to present the detailed analysis of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system and to compare the performance of the PSA with 2 other systems commonly used to provide dilution air for engine exhaust nanoparticle measurements. The results of the comparison are discussed in context with some emissions measurements that require exhaust dilution.
Technical Paper

Dust Loading Behavior of Engine and General Purpose Air Cleaning Filters

The purpose of this study is to compare the dust loading behavior of ten filter media. The filters are used in engine air filtration, self-cleaning industrial air cleaners, building heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC), automotive cabin air filtration, air respirators, and general purpose air cleaning. Several types of filter media are tested. The filters include cellulose, synthetic (felt), glass, dual-layered glass/cellulose, mixed synthetic/glass, gradient packing glass, and electrically charged fibers. The initial pressure drops and fractional collection efficiencies as a function of particle size are reported. The filters were evaluated with two test dusts to investigate the size-dependent dust loading behavior. The two test dusts are SAE fine and submicron alumina powder (median diameter 0.25 μm). The results are analyzed and compared. It was found that the cellulose filters exhibited surface loading behavior and have the fastest growth of pressure drops.
Technical Paper

A Bimodal Loading Test for Engine and General Purpose Air Cleaning Filters

The dust holding capacity of air cleaning filter depends on the size distribution of the particles. Traditional test dusts like Arizona road dust consist of a single mode of coarse particles. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dust holding capacities of air filters with a bi-modal test dust that simulates the dust in atmospheric environments. The fine mode of the test dust consists of submicron Alumina particles that represent the fine particles in atmosphere. The coarse mode consists of traditional AC fine dust. The fine and coarse dusts are mixed in different mass ratios to simulate different atmospheric conditions. The ratios are 100% fine, 50%/50%, 25%/75%, 10%/90%, and 100% coarse. An engine air filter and a HVAC filter were studied with the bi-modal test dusts. The filter pressure drops were measured as a function of the dust loading. The results show that the flow resistance rises significantly faster as the ratio of fine to coarse fraction increases.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Knock Detection Using In-Cylinder Optical Probes

Two types of in-cylinder optical probes were applied to a single cylinder CFR engine to detect knocking combustion. The first probe was integrated directly into the engine spark plug to monitor the radiation from burned gas in the combustion process. The second was built into a steel body and installed near the end gas region of the combustion chamber. It measured the radiant emission from the end gas in which knock originates. The measurements were centered in the near infrared region because thermal radiation from the combustion products was believed to be the main source of radiation from a spark ignition engine. As a result, ordinary photo detectors can be applied to the system to reduce its cost and complexity. It was found that the measured luminous intensity was strongly dependent upon the location of the optical sensor.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Soot and NO in a Direct-injection Diesel Engine

Results of comparisons of computed and measured soot and NO in a direct-injection Diesel engine are presented. The computations are carried out using a three-dimensional model for flows, sprays and combustion in Diesel engines. Autoignition of the Diesel spray is modeled using an equation for a progress variable which measures the local and instantaneous tendency of the fuel to autoignite. High temperature chemistry is modeled using a local chemical equilibrium model coupled to a combination of laminar kinetic and turbulent characteristic times. Soot formation is kinetically controlled and soot oxidation is represented by a model which has a combination of laminar kinetic and turbulent mixing times. Soot oxidation appears to be controlled near top-dead-center by mixing and by kinetics as the exhaust is approached. NO is modeled using the Zeldovich mechanism.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Computations of Diesel Sprays in a Very High Pressure Chamber

Results of three-dimensional computations of non-vaporizing and vaporizing Diesel sprays in a very high pressure (up to 18.4 MPa without combustion) environment are presented. These pressures and corresponding density ratios of ambient gas to injected liquid are about a factor of two greater than those in current Diesel engines. The spray model incorporates a line source for drops, heat, mass and momentum exchange between the gas and liquid phases, turbulent dispersion of drops, collisions and coalescences, and drop breakup. The accuracy of the model is assessed by making comparisons of computed and measured spray penetrations. Reasonable agreement is obtained for a broad range of conditions. A scaling for time and axial distance clarifies these results.
Technical Paper

An Ionization Probe Study of Small Engine Combustion Chambers

Combustion characteristics of an L-head engine combustion chamber have been examined using ionization probes and piezioelectric pressure transducers. The method describes how pressure rise rates, peak pressures, mean effective pressures, and flame arrival times were recorded. The flame arrival times were then used to find the position and shape of the flame front as a function of time. The influence of spark plug location on the above parameters was then examined for two different combustion chamber shapes.