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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Trajectory Based Combustion Control for Electrical Free Piston Engine

Previously, the authors have proposed a novel strategy called trajectory based combustion control for the free piston engine (FPE) where the shape of the piston trajectory between top and bottom dead centers is used as a control input to modulate the chemical kinetics of the fuel-air mixture inside the combustion chamber. It has been shown that in case of a hydraulic free piston engine (HFPE), using active motion control, the piston inside the combustion chamber can be forced to track any desired trajectory, despite the absence of a crankshaft, providing reliable starting and stable operation. This allows the use of optimized piston trajectory for every operating point which minimizes fuel consumption and emissions. In this work, this concept is extended to an electrical free piston engine (EFPE) as a modular power source.
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Framework for Fuel Efficiency Improvement in Extended Range Electric Vehicle Used in Package Delivery Applications

Extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) are a potential solution for fossil fuel usage mitigation and on-road emissions reduction. The use of EREVs can be shown to yield significant fuel economy improvements when proper energy management strategies (EMSs) are employed. However, many in-use EREVs achieve only moderate fuel reduction compared to conventional vehicles due to the fact that their EMS is far from optimal. This paper focuses on in-use rule-based EMSs to improve the fuel efficiency of EREV last-mile delivery vehicles equipped with two-way Vehicle-to-Could (V2C) connectivity. The method uses previous vehicle data collected on actual delivery routes and machine learning methods to improve the fuel economy of future routes. The paper first introduces the main challenges of the project, such as inherent uncertainty in human driver behavior and in the roadway environment. Then, the framework of our practical physics-model guided data-driven approach is introduced.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Single-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Using Reformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation

A key challenge for the practical introduction of dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion modes in diesel engines is the requirement to store two fuels on-board. This work demonstrates that partially reforming diesel fuel into less reactive products is a promising method to allow RCCI to be implemented with a single stored fuel. Experiments were conducted using a thermally integrated reforming reactor in a reformed exhaust gas recirculation (R-EGR) configuration to achieve RCCI combustion using a light-duty diesel engine. The engine was operated at a low engine load and two reformed fuel percentages over ranges of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and main diesel fuel injection timing. Results show that RCCI-like emissions of NOx and soot were achieved load using the R-EGR configuration. It was also shown that complete fuel conversion in the reforming reactor is not necessary to achieve sufficiently low fuel reactivity for RCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Species from Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Using a Stochastic Reactor Model

Fuel reforming during a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) period is an effective approach to control Low Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) ignition. Previous work has shown through experiments that primary reference fuels reform easily and produce several species that drastically affect ignition characteristics. However, our previous research has been unable to accurately predict measured reformate composition at the end of the NVO period using simple single-zone models. In this work, we use a stochastic reactor model (SRM) closed cycle engine simulation to predict reformate composition accounting for in-cylinder temperature and mixture stratification. The SRM model is less computationally intensive than CFD simulations while still allowing the use of large chemical mechanisms to predict intermediate species formation rates.
Technical Paper

Exploration of Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Operation with On-Board Fuel Reforming

Many dual fuel technologies have been proposed for diesel engines. Implementing dual fuel modes can lead to emissions reductions or increased efficiency through using partially premixed combustion and fuel reactivity control. All dual fuel systems have the practical disadvantage that a secondary fuel storage and delivery system must be included. Reforming the primary diesel to a less reactive vaporized fuel on-board has potential to overcome this key disadvantage. Most previous research regarding on-board fuel reforming has been focused on producing significant quantities of hydrogen. However, only partially reforming the primary fuel is sufficient to vaporize and create a less volatile fuel that can be fumigated into an engine intake. At lower conversion efficiency and higher equivalence ratio, reforming reactors retain higher percentage of the inlet fuel’s heating value thus allowing for greater overall engine system efficiency.
Journal Article

Energy Analysis of Low-Load Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion with Auxiliary-Fueled Negative Valve Overlap

In-cylinder reforming of injected fuel during an auxiliary negative valve overlap (NVO) period can be used to optimize main-cycle auto-ignition phasing for low-load Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC), where highly dilute mixtures can lead to poor combustion stability. When mixed with fresh intake charge and fuel, these reformate streams can alter overall charge reactivity characteristics. The central issue remains large parasitic heat losses from the retention and compression of hot exhaust gases along with modest pumping losses that result from mixing hot NVO-period gases with the cooler intake charge. Accurate determination of total cycle energy utilization is complicated by the fact that NVO-period retained fuel energy is consumed during the subsequent main combustion period. For the present study, a full-cycle energy analysis was performed for a single-cylinder research engine undergoing LTGC with varying NVO auxiliary fueling rates and injection timing.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Effects on In-Cylinder Reforming Chemistry Using Gas Chromatography

Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) is a potential control strategy for enabling Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) at low loads. While the thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well-understood, the chemical effects of NVO in-cylinder fuel reforming have not been extensively studied. The objective of this work is to examine the effects of fuel molecular structure on NVO fuel reforming using gas sampling and detailed speciation by gas chromatography. Engine gas samples were collected from a single-cylinder research engine at the end of the NVO period using a custom dump-valve apparatus. Six fuel components were studied at two injection timings: (1) iso-octane, (2) n-heptane, (3) ethanol, (4) 1-hexene, (5) cyclohexane, and (6) toluene. All fuel components were studied neat except for toluene - toluene was blended with 18.9% nheptane by liquid volume to increase the fuel reactivity.
Journal Article

An Aerosolization Method for Characterizing Particle Contaminants in Diesel Fuel

Diesel fuel injection systems are operating at increasingly higher pressure (up to 250 MPa) with smaller clearances, making them more sensitive to diesel fuel contaminants. Most liquid particle counters have difficulty detecting particles <4 μm in diameter and are unable to distinguish between solid and semi-solid materials. The low conductivity of diesel fuel limits the use of the Coulter counter. This raises the need for a new method to characterize small (<4 μm) fuel contaminants. We propose and evaluate an aerosolization method for characterizing solid particulate matter in diesel fuel that can detect particles as small as 0.5 μm. The particle sizing and concentration performance of the method were calibrated and validated by the use of seed particles added to filtered diesel fuel. A size dependent correction method was developed to account for the preferential atomization and subsequent aerosol conditioning processes to obtain the liquid-borne particle concentration.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen as a Combustion Modifier of Ethanol in Compression Ignition Engines

Ethanol, used widely as a spark-ignition (SI) engine fuel, has seen minimal success as a compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. The lack of success of ethanol in CI engines is mainly due to ethanol's very low cetane number and its poor lubricity properties. Past researchers have utilized nearly pure ethanol in a CI engine by either increasing the compression ratio which requires extensive engine modification and/or using an expensive ignition improver. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the ability of a hydrogen port fuel injection (PFI) system to facilitate the combustion of ethanol in a CI engine. Non-denatured anhydrous ethanol, mixed with a lubricity additive, was used in a variable compression ratio CI engine. Testing was conducted by varying the amount of bottled hydrogen gas injected into the intake manifold via a PFI system. The hydrogen flowrates were varied from 0 - 10 slpm.
Technical Paper

Particle and Gaseous Emission Characteristics of a Formula SAE Race Car Engine

The focus of this work was the physical characterization of exhaust aerosol from the University of Minnesota Formula SAE team's engine. This was done using two competition fuels, 100 octane race fuel and E85. Three engine conditions were evaluated: 6000 RPM 75% throttle, 8000 RPM 50% throttle, and 8000 RPM 100% throttle. Dilute emissions were characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). E85 fuel produced more power and had lower particulate matter emissions at all test conditions, but more fuel was consumed.
Technical Paper

Off-shoring EMS and the Barrier of Test-in-Reliability

The history of off-road equipment manufacturing has been based on proven designs and long times between model updates. In sharp contrast with this strategy is the electronic manufacturing services (EMS) industry. The EMS industry is driven by the larger consumer product industry's continuing pressure for lower costs. Because of this, EMS tools, processes, and practices have evolved to support rapid technology and component changes. However the increasing consumer demand for features like better user-interfaces, more efficient fuel consumption, and the desire for increased operational controls in equipment have forced the off-road industry to increase the frequency of product updates to meet customers' needs. Equipment manufacturers make running changes leading to a “Learning-by-doing” development and manufacturing process. But rapid changes sometimes have an unpredictable impact on the reliability of the final product.
Journal Article

Emissions Effects of Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel with Diesel and Biodiesel

A 1.9 liter Volkswagen TDI engine has been modified to accomodate the addition of hydrogen into the intake manifold via timed port fuel injection. Engine out particulate matter and the emissions of oxides of nitrogen were investigated. Two fuels,low sulfur diesel fuel (BP50) and soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B99), were tested with supplemental hydrogen fueling. Three test conditions were selected to represent a range of engine operating modes. The tests were executed at 20, 40, and 60 % rated load with a constant engine speed o 1700 RPM. At each test condition the percentage of power from hydrogen energy was varied from 0 to 40 %. This corresponds to hydrogen flow rates ranging from 7 to 85 liters per minute. Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured using a scaning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a two stage micro dilution system. Oxides of nitrogen were also monitored.
Journal Article

Late Intake Valve Closing as an Emissions Control Strategy at Tier 2 Bin 5 Engine-Out NOx Level

A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment. The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches.
Technical Paper

Improving Air Quality by Using Biodiesel in Generators

A biodiesel / petroleum fuel blend and practical low-cost methods of emission control were sought to obtain reductions in emissions from diesel generators. Little direct testing of biodiesel in diesel-powered electric generators has been done. Laboratory and field evaluations were conducted to determine the influence of using biodiesel on diesel exhaust emissions. B20 (20% biodiesel / 80% petroleum diesel) was chosen because of previously successful studies with this blend level, and there is evidence that the NOx emissions increase that result from using B20 can be controlled using existing technology. B85 was selected because it is a “high blend,” which promised to give a large decrease in PM at the expense of a larger increase in NOx than B20, but still within the range of control with existing technology. Charge-air cooling and a fuel additive were tested as NOx controls. For PM, CO, and HC reduction, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Particle Number and Size Distributions with Conventional and Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuels

Diesel exhaust particle number concentrations and size distributions, as well as gaseous and particulate mass emissions, were measured during steady-state tests on a US heavy-duty engine and a European passenger car engine. Two fuels were compared, namely a Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel manufactured from natural gas, and a US D2 on-highway diesel fuel. With both engines, the Fischer-Tropsch fuel showed a considerable reduction in the number of particles formed by nucleation, when compared with the D2 fuel. At most test modes, particle number emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles. Consequently, there were generally large reductions (up to 93%) in the total particle number emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel. It is thought that the most probable cause for the reduction in nucleation mode particles is the negligible sulphur content of the Fischer-Tropsch fuel. In general, there were also reductions in all the regulated emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Additives and Dilution Conditions on the Formation and Emission of Exhaust Particulate Matter from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Experiments were performed to measure the number-weighted particle size distributions emitted from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 15 - 100 km/hr. Dilution of the exhaust aerosol was carried out using a two-stage dilution system in which the first stage dilution occurs as a free jet. Particle size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Generally speaking, the presence of the additives did not have a strong, consistent influence on the particle emissions from this engine. The polyether amine demonstrated a reduction in particle number concentration as compared to unadditized base fuel.
Technical Paper

Influence of an Iron Fuel Additive on Diesel Combustion

This program used a 0.6 liter DI NA single cylinder diesel engine to study the influence of ferrocene as a fuel additive on particulate and NOx emissions and heat release rates. Previous Studies1,15 have shown efficiency and particulate emission benefits only after engine conditioning. Two engine configurations were tested: standard aluminum piston with normal engine deposits and a second test with the engine cleaned to “new engine condition”, but with the piston replaced with a thermal barrier coated piston. Particle concentration and size in roughly the 7.5 to 750 nm diameter range were measured with a condensation nucleus counter and an electrical aerosol analyzer. Heat release rates and IMEPs were calculated from in-cylinder pressure data. Particle number concentrations increased substantially when the 250 ppm dose was first started with both engine configuration, but decreased 30% to 50% with conditioning.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Knock Detection Using In-Cylinder Optical Probes

Two types of in-cylinder optical probes were applied to a single cylinder CFR engine to detect knocking combustion. The first probe was integrated directly into the engine spark plug to monitor the radiation from burned gas in the combustion process. The second was built into a steel body and installed near the end gas region of the combustion chamber. It measured the radiant emission from the end gas in which knock originates. The measurements were centered in the near infrared region because thermal radiation from the combustion products was believed to be the main source of radiation from a spark ignition engine. As a result, ordinary photo detectors can be applied to the system to reduce its cost and complexity. It was found that the measured luminous intensity was strongly dependent upon the location of the optical sensor.
Technical Paper

Transient Particulate Emissions from Diesel Buses During the Central Business District Cycle

Particulate emissions from heavy-duty buses were measured in real time under conditions encountered during the standard Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses tested were equipped with 1994 Detroit Diesel Engine Corporation 6V92-TA engines, and some included after treatment devices on the exhaust. Instantaneous, time-resolved measurements of CO2 and amorphous carbon concentrations were obtained using an optical extinction technique and compared to simultaneous results obtained using conventional dilution tunnel sampling methods. Good agreement was obtained between the real-time extinction measurements and the diluted CO2 and cycle-integrated filter measurements. The instantaneous measurements revealed that acceleration transients accounted for roughly 80% of the particulate mass emitted during the cycle but only about 45% of the fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Emissions Characteristics of Soy Methyl Ester Fuels in an IDI Compression Ignition Engine

As part of an ongoing program to control the emissions of diesel-powered equipment used in underground mines, the U. S. Bureau of Mines evaluated exhaust emissions from a compression ignition engine using oxygenated diesel fuels and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). The fuels include neat (100%) soy methyl ester (SME), and a blend of 30% SME (by volume) with 70% petroleum diesel fuel. A Caterpillar 3304 PCNA engine was tested for approximately 50 hours on each fuel. Compared with commercial low-sulfur diesel fuel (D2), neat SME increased volatile organic diesel particulate matter (DPM) but greatly decreased non-volatile DPM, for a net decrease in total DPM. The DOC further reduced volatile and total DPM NOx emissions were slightly reduced for the case of neat SME, but otherwise were not significantly affected. Peak brake power decreased 9% and brake specific fuel consumption increased 13 to 14% for the neat methyl soyate because of its lower energy content compared with D2.