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Technical Paper

Demonstration of Single-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Using Reformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0262
A key challenge for the practical introduction of dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion modes in diesel engines is the requirement to store two fuels on-board. This work demonstrates that partially reforming diesel fuel into less reactive products is a promising method to allow RCCI to be implemented with a single stored fuel. Experiments were conducted using a thermally integrated reforming reactor in a reformed exhaust gas recirculation (R-EGR) configuration to achieve RCCI combustion using a light-duty diesel engine. The engine was operated at a low engine load and two reformed fuel percentages over ranges of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and main diesel fuel injection timing. Results show that RCCI-like emissions of NOx and soot were achieved load using the R-EGR configuration. It was also shown that complete fuel conversion in the reforming reactor is not necessary to achieve sufficiently low fuel reactivity for RCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Solid Particle Number and Mass Emissions from Lean and Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0359
In this work, engine-out particle mass (PM) and particle number (PN) emissions were experimentally examined from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine operating in two lean combustion modes and one stoichiometric mode with a fuel of known properties. Ten steady state operating points, two constant speed load steps, and an engine cold start were examined. Results showed that solid particles emitted from the engine under steady state stoichiometric conditions had a uniquely broad size distribution that was relatively flat between the diameters of 10 and 100 nm. In most operating conditions, lean homogenous modes can achieve lower particle emissions than stoichiometric modes while improving engine thermal efficiency. Alternatively, lean stratified operating modes resulted in significantly higher PN and PM emissions than both lean homogeneous and stoichiometric modes with increased efficiency only at low engine load.
Technical Paper

Comparison and Optimization of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy for Speciating Unburned Hydrocarbons from Diesel Low Temperature Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0992
Partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines is a strategy for reducing soot and NOX formation, though it is accompanied by higher unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions compared to conventional mixing-controlled diesel combustion. In this work, two independent methods of quantifying light UHC species from a diesel engine operating in early LTC (ELTC) modes were compared: Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). A sampling system was designed to capture and transfer exhaust samples for off-line GC-MS analysis, while the FT-IR sampled and quantified engine exhaust in real time. Three different ELTC modes with varying levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were implemented on a modern light-duty diesel engine. GC-MS and FT-IR concentrations were within 10 % for C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and C2H4O. While C3H8 was identified and quantified by the FT-IR, it was not detected by the GCMS.
Technical Paper

Exploration of Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Operation with On-Board Fuel Reforming

2017-03-28
2017-01-0757
Many dual fuel technologies have been proposed for diesel engines. Implementing dual fuel modes can lead to emissions reductions or increased efficiency through using partially premixed combustion and fuel reactivity control. All dual fuel systems have the practical disadvantage that a secondary fuel storage and delivery system must be included. Reforming the primary diesel to a less reactive vaporized fuel on-board has potential to overcome this key disadvantage. Most previous research regarding on-board fuel reforming has been focused on producing significant quantities of hydrogen. However, only partially reforming the primary fuel is sufficient to vaporize and create a less volatile fuel that can be fumigated into an engine intake. At lower conversion efficiency and higher equivalence ratio, reforming reactors retain higher percentage of the inlet fuel’s heating value thus allowing for greater overall engine system efficiency.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Species from Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Using a Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0529
Fuel reforming during a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) period is an effective approach to control Low Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) ignition. Previous work has shown through experiments that primary reference fuels reform easily and produce several species that drastically affect ignition characteristics. However, our previous research has been unable to accurately predict measured reformate composition at the end of the NVO period using simple single-zone models. In this work, we use a stochastic reactor model (SRM) closed cycle engine simulation to predict reformate composition accounting for in-cylinder temperature and mixture stratification. The SRM model is less computationally intensive than CFD simulations while still allowing the use of large chemical mechanisms to predict intermediate species formation rates.
Journal Article

Energy Analysis of Low-Load Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion with Auxiliary-Fueled Negative Valve Overlap

2017-03-28
2017-01-0729
In-cylinder reforming of injected fuel during an auxiliary negative valve overlap (NVO) period can be used to optimize main-cycle auto-ignition phasing for low-load Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC), where highly dilute mixtures can lead to poor combustion stability. When mixed with fresh intake charge and fuel, these reformate streams can alter overall charge reactivity characteristics. The central issue remains large parasitic heat losses from the retention and compression of hot exhaust gases along with modest pumping losses that result from mixing hot NVO-period gases with the cooler intake charge. Accurate determination of total cycle energy utilization is complicated by the fact that NVO-period retained fuel energy is consumed during the subsequent main combustion period. For the present study, a full-cycle energy analysis was performed for a single-cylinder research engine undergoing LTGC with varying NVO auxiliary fueling rates and injection timing.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Effects on In-Cylinder Reforming Chemistry Using Gas Chromatography

2016-04-05
2016-01-0753
Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) is a potential control strategy for enabling Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) at low loads. While the thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well-understood, the chemical effects of NVO in-cylinder fuel reforming have not been extensively studied. The objective of this work is to examine the effects of fuel molecular structure on NVO fuel reforming using gas sampling and detailed speciation by gas chromatography. Engine gas samples were collected from a single-cylinder research engine at the end of the NVO period using a custom dump-valve apparatus. Six fuel components were studied at two injection timings: (1) iso-octane, (2) n-heptane, (3) ethanol, (4) 1-hexene, (5) cyclohexane, and (6) toluene. All fuel components were studied neat except for toluene - toluene was blended with 18.9% nheptane by liquid volume to increase the fuel reactivity.
Technical Paper

Efficacy of In-Cylinder Control of Particulate Emissions to Meet Current and Future Regulatory Standards

2014-04-01
2014-01-1597
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology has proven performance and reliability. However, the addition of a DPF adds significant cost and packaging constraints leading some manufacturers to design engines that reduce particulate matter in-cylinder. Such engines utilize high fuel injection pressure, moderate exhaust gas recirculation and modified injection timing to mitigate soot formation. This study examines such an engine designed to meet US EPA Interim Tier 4 standards for off-highway applications without a DPF. The engine was operated at four steady state modes and aerosol measurements were made using a two-stage, ejector dilution system with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) equipped with a catalytic stripper (CS) to differentiate semi-volatile versus solid components in the exhaust. Gaseous emissions were measured using an FTIR analyzer and particulate matter mass emissions were estimated using SMPS data and an assumed particle density function.
Journal Article

An Aerosolization Method for Characterizing Particle Contaminants in Diesel Fuel

2013-10-14
2013-01-2668
Diesel fuel injection systems are operating at increasingly higher pressure (up to 250 MPa) with smaller clearances, making them more sensitive to diesel fuel contaminants. Most liquid particle counters have difficulty detecting particles <4 μm in diameter and are unable to distinguish between solid and semi-solid materials. The low conductivity of diesel fuel limits the use of the Coulter counter. This raises the need for a new method to characterize small (<4 μm) fuel contaminants. We propose and evaluate an aerosolization method for characterizing solid particulate matter in diesel fuel that can detect particles as small as 0.5 μm. The particle sizing and concentration performance of the method were calibrated and validated by the use of seed particles added to filtered diesel fuel. A size dependent correction method was developed to account for the preferential atomization and subsequent aerosol conditioning processes to obtain the liquid-borne particle concentration.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen as a Combustion Modifier of Ethanol in Compression Ignition Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2814
Ethanol, used widely as a spark-ignition (SI) engine fuel, has seen minimal success as a compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. The lack of success of ethanol in CI engines is mainly due to ethanol's very low cetane number and its poor lubricity properties. Past researchers have utilized nearly pure ethanol in a CI engine by either increasing the compression ratio which requires extensive engine modification and/or using an expensive ignition improver. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the ability of a hydrogen port fuel injection (PFI) system to facilitate the combustion of ethanol in a CI engine. Non-denatured anhydrous ethanol, mixed with a lubricity additive, was used in a variable compression ratio CI engine. Testing was conducted by varying the amount of bottled hydrogen gas injected into the intake manifold via a PFI system. The hydrogen flowrates were varied from 0 - 10 slpm.
Journal Article

Measuring Diesel Ash Emissions and Estimating Lube Oil Consumption Using a High Temperature Oxidation Method

2009-06-15
2009-01-1843
Diesel engine ash emissions are composed of the non-combustible portions of diesel particulate matter derived mainly from lube oil, and over time can degrade diesel particulate filter performance. This paper presents results from a high temperature oxidation method (HTOM) used to estimate ash emissions, and engine oil consumption in real-time. Atomized lubrication oil and diesel engine exhaust were used to evaluate the HTOM performance. Atomized fresh and used lube oil experiments showed that the HTOM reached stable particle size distributions and concentrations at temperatures above 700°C. The HTOM produced very similar number and volume weighted particle size distributions for both types of lube oils. The particle number size distribution was unimodal, with a geometric mean diameter of about 23 nm. The volume size distribution had a geometric volume mean diameter of about 65 nm.
Technical Paper

Particle and Gaseous Emission Characteristics of a Formula SAE Race Car Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1400
The focus of this work was the physical characterization of exhaust aerosol from the University of Minnesota Formula SAE team's engine. This was done using two competition fuels, 100 octane race fuel and E85. Three engine conditions were evaluated: 6000 RPM 75% throttle, 8000 RPM 50% throttle, and 8000 RPM 100% throttle. Dilute emissions were characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). E85 fuel produced more power and had lower particulate matter emissions at all test conditions, but more fuel was consumed.
Journal Article

Uncertainties in Filter Mass Measurements Made to Determine Compliance with the 2007 Diesel PM Standard

2009-04-20
2009-01-1516
The 2007 Diesel particulate matter (DPM) standard of 0.01 g/bhp-hr represents a 90% reduction of the previous standard and corresponds to roughly 100 micrograms (μg) gained on the filter sample used to determine compliance. The factors that influence the accuracy and precision by which this filter can be weighed are analyzed and quantified. The total uncertainty, representing best and typical cases, is between 1 and 5 μg. These uncertainties are used to compute the total uncertainty of the brake specific emission calculation. This uncertainty also depends on flowrate uncertainty, face velocity, and secondary dilution ratio. For a typical case, the total fractional uncertainty is in the range of ∼5 – 70% at 10% of the standard and ∼1 – 10% at 90% of the standard.
Journal Article

Factors Influencing Mass Collected During 2007 Diesel PM Filter Sampling

2009-04-20
2009-01-1517
EPA's 2007 Diesel particulate matter (DPM) standard requires a large reduction in total mass emissions. In practice, this amounts to a fractional reduction in elemental carbon emissions. The reduction is balanced by a fractional increase in the semi-volatile component, which is difficult to sample and quantify accurately at low concentrations using filter-based methods. In this work, we show how five imprecisely defined filter-sampling parameters influence the mass collected on a filter. These parameters are: dilution air quality, dilution conditions (dilution ratio and dilution air temperature), particle size classification, filter media and artifacts, and face velocity. Each factor has the potential to change the mass collected by a minimum of 5% of the standard, suggesting there is room for improvement.
Technical Paper

Off-shoring EMS and the Barrier of Test-in-Reliability

2008-10-07
2008-01-2712
The history of off-road equipment manufacturing has been based on proven designs and long times between model updates. In sharp contrast with this strategy is the electronic manufacturing services (EMS) industry. The EMS industry is driven by the larger consumer product industry's continuing pressure for lower costs. Because of this, EMS tools, processes, and practices have evolved to support rapid technology and component changes. However the increasing consumer demand for features like better user-interfaces, more efficient fuel consumption, and the desire for increased operational controls in equipment have forced the off-road industry to increase the frequency of product updates to meet customers' needs. Equipment manufacturers make running changes leading to a “Learning-by-doing” development and manufacturing process. But rapid changes sometimes have an unpredictable impact on the reliability of the final product.
Journal Article

Emissions Effects of Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel with Diesel and Biodiesel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0648
A 1.9 liter Volkswagen TDI engine has been modified to accomodate the addition of hydrogen into the intake manifold via timed port fuel injection. Engine out particulate matter and the emissions of oxides of nitrogen were investigated. Two fuels,low sulfur diesel fuel (BP50) and soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B99), were tested with supplemental hydrogen fueling. Three test conditions were selected to represent a range of engine operating modes. The tests were executed at 20, 40, and 60 % rated load with a constant engine speed o 1700 RPM. At each test condition the percentage of power from hydrogen energy was varied from 0 to 40 %. This corresponds to hydrogen flow rates ranging from 7 to 85 liters per minute. Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured using a scaning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a two stage micro dilution system. Oxides of nitrogen were also monitored.
Journal Article

Late Intake Valve Closing as an Emissions Control Strategy at Tier 2 Bin 5 Engine-Out NOx Level

2008-04-14
2008-01-0637
A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment. The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches.
Technical Paper

An Alternative Method for Generating Ultra-Clean Dilution Air for Engine Emissions Measurements

2007-04-16
2007-01-1111
Many engine exhaust emissions measurements require exhaust dilution. With low-emission engines, there is the possibility for contaminants in the dilution air to contribute artifacts to the emissions measurement. The objectives of this work are to discuss common methods used to clean the dilution air, to present the detailed analysis of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system and to compare the performance of the PSA with 2 other systems commonly used to provide dilution air for engine exhaust nanoparticle measurements. The results of the comparison are discussed in context with some emissions measurements that require exhaust dilution.
Technical Paper

Significance of Fuel Sulfur Content and Dilution Conditions on Particle Emissions from a Heavily-Used Diesel Engine During Transient Operation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0319
The effects of fuel sulfur content and dilution conditions on diesel engine PM number emissions have been researched extensively through steady state testing. Most results show that the concentration of nuclei-mode particles emitted increases with fuel sulfur content. A few studies further observed that fuel sulfur content has little effect on the emissions of heavily-used engines. It has also been found that primary dilution conditions can have a large impact on the size and number distribution of the nuclei-mode particles. These effects, however, have not yet been fully understood through transient testing, the method used by governments worldwide to certify engines and regulate emissions, and a means of experimentation which generates realistic conditions of on-road vehicles by varying the load and speed of the engine.
Technical Paper

Comparing Measurements of Carbon in Diesel Exhaust Aerosols Using the Aethalometer, NIOSH Method 5040, and SMPS

2007-04-16
2007-01-0334
Combustion aerosols consist mainly of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC). Since EC strongly absorbs light and thus affects atmospheric visibility and radiation balance, there is great interest in its measurement. To this end, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published a standard method to determine the mass of EC and OC on filter samples. Another common method of measuring carbon in aerosols is the aethalometer, which uses light extinction to measure “black carbon” or BC, which is considered to approximate EC. A third method sometimes used for estimating carbon in submicron combustion aerosols, is to measure particle size distributions using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and calculate mass using the assumptions that the particles are spherical, carbonaceous and of known density.
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