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Technical Paper

Constraints on Fuel Injection and EGR Strategies for Diesel PCCI-Type Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-1327
An experimental study has been carried out to explore what limits fuel injection and EGR strategies when trying to run a PCCI-type mode of combustion on an engine with current generation hardware. The engine is a turbocharged V6 DI diesel with (1600 bar) HPCR fuel injection equipment and a cooled external EGR system. The variables examined have been the split and timings of fuel injections and the level of EGR; the responses investigated have been ignition delay, heat release, combustion noise, engine-out emissions and brake specific fuel consumption. Although PCCI-type combustion strategies can be effective in reducing NOx and soot emissions, it proved difficult to achieve this without either a high noise or a fuel economy penalty.
Journal Article

Investigations of Piston Ring Pack and Skirt Contributions to Motored Engine Friction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1046
An experimental study has been carried out to examine the influence of ring tan load and piston skirt modifications on piston assembly friction under motored engine conditions for initial temperatures of -20, 0 and 30°C and motoring speeds within the range 400 to 2000 rev/min. The study has been carried out using the block, crankshaft and pistons of a 2.4I, 4 cylinder diesel engine with a bore and stroke of 89.9mm and 94.6mm respectively. The pistons examined are typical of current designs for light duty diesels. A range of ring pack and piston skirt modifications have been tested, in each case as part of a complete piston assembly. The first changes produced reductions in fmep of between 5% and 38%. The reduction was due to improved skirt and ring pack designs in equal measure, each giving improvements of up to 20%. From this baseline eliminating the tan load of the piston rings was projected to give a further reduction in fmep of between 10% and 20%.
Journal Article

The Effect of Reducing Compression Ratio on the Work Output and Heat Release Characteristics of a DI Diesel under Cold Start Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1306
An experimental investigation has been carried out to compare the indicated performance and heat release characteristics of a DI diesel engine at compression ratios of 18.4:1 and 15.4:1. The compression ratio was changed by modifying the piston bowl volume; the bore and stroke were unchanged, and the swept volume was nominally 500cc. The engine is a single cylinder variant of modern design which meets Euro 4 emissions requirements. Work output and heat release characteristics for the two compression ratios have been compared at an engine speed of 300 rev/min and test temperatures of 10, -10 and -20°C. A more limited comparison has also been made for higher speeds representative of cold idle at one test temperature (-20°C). The reduction in compression ratio generally produces an increase in peak specific indicated work output at low speeds; this is attributable to a reduction in blowby and heat transfer losses and lower peak rates of heat release increasing cumulative burn.
Technical Paper

DISI Engine Spark and Fuel Injection Timings. Effects, Compromise and Robustness

2001-09-24
2001-01-3672
DISI engine emissions and fuel economy are strongly dependent upon fuel injection and spark timings, particularly when the engine is operating in stratified charge mode. Experimental studies of the effects of injection and spark timings and the interaction between these are described. The sensitivity of HC and NOx emissions to timings during stratified charge operation, the comparison of performance under stratified and homogeneous charge modes of operation and the rationale for mode switch point settings are investigated. The high sensitivity of emissions to injection and spark timing settings gives rise to potential robustness issues. These are described.
Technical Paper

Characterisation of DISI Emissions and Fuel Economy in Homogeneous and Stratified Charge Modes of Operation

2001-09-24
2001-01-3671
An experimental study of the performance of a reverse tumble, DISI engine is reported. Specific fuel consumption and engine-out emissions have been investigated for both homogeneous and stratified modes of fuel injection. Trends in performance with varying AFR, EGR, spark and injection timings have been explored. It is shown that neural networks can be trained to describe these trends accurately for even the most complex case of stratified charge operation with exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper

The Build-Up of Oil Dilution by Gasoline and the Influence of Vehicle Usage Pattern

2000-10-16
2000-01-2838
The dilution of lubricating oil by fuel has adverse effects on engine wear, oil lubricity, air/fuel ratio control and feedgas emissions. Dilution is one of the factors limiting oil change intervals. The level and rate of accumulation depend on engine operating conditions and patterns of vehicle use. The work reported here develops and evaluates an empirical model to predict accumulation characteristics. This is aligned to requirements for predictions of dilution build-up in service. Predictions are shown to be in good agreement with data given in the literature. The model is used to investigate the influence of patterns of vehicle use on dilution.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Gas/Fuel Ratio on Combustion Stability and Misfire Limits of Spark Ignition Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1208
The deterioration of combustion stability as lean operating limits and misfire conditions are approached has been investigated experimentally. The study has been carried out on spark ignition engines with port fuel injection and four-valves-per-cylinder. Test conditions cover fully-warm and cold operation, and ranges of air/fuel ratio, exhaust gas recirculation rates and spark timing. An approximate method of calculating gas/fuel ratio is described. This is used to show that combustion stability, characterised by the coefficient of variation of i.m.e.p., is a function of calculated gas/fuel ratio and spark timing until near to the limit of stability. A rapid deterioration in stability and the onset of weak, partial burning occurs at a gas/fuel ratio between 24:1 and 26:1 under fully-warm operating conditions, and around one gas/fuel ratio lower under cold operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Transport to the Crankcase, Oil Dilution and HC Return with Breather Flow During the Cold Operation of a SI Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1235
Fuel losses to the crankcase, fuel/oil interactions, and fuel return as unburned hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been investigated. Hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been measured during motored and firing engine operation over a range of temperatures. Fuel desorption from the sump oil accounts for a small proportion of this. The major source is hydrocarbons transported past the piston with blowby. After a cold start, around 85% of these are retained in oil films below the ring pack. The recirculation of oil from the films to the sump contributes to bulk oil dilution. This appears to be the prime mechanism by which fuel is lost to oil dilution during cold operation. The mechanism becomes less effective as engine warm-up progresses. At fully-warm oil temperatures (∼100°C), only about 5% are removed from the blowby.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Utilisation After Cold Starting Spark Ignition Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0220
A model has been developed to interpret experimental results for emissions and air/fuel ratio variations recorded during warm-up from cold starts at temperatures down to -20°C. The model describes fuel transport and utilisation after injection to its exhaust as fuel products or loss to the crankcase, and allows for the storage of fuel in films on the intake port surface, in-cylinder surfaces and in the piston “crevice”. Engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons are treated as being comprised of contributions from the bulk charge, fuel returning from in-cylinder wetted surfaces and from fuel stored in the piston crevices. The model characterises engine-out emissions and air/fuel ratio variations successfully under both quasi-steady and transient engine operating conditions during warm-up. Good agreement between experimental data and model predictions has been achieved for a wide range of engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0556
A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Technical Paper

Exhaust System Heat Transfer and Catalytic Converter Performance

1999-03-01
1999-01-0453
Three-way catalytic converters used on spark ignition engines have performance and durability characteristics which are effected by the thermal environment in which these operate. The design of the exhaust system and the location of the catalyst unit are important in controlling the range of thermal states the catalyst is exposed to. A model of system thermal behaviour has been developed to support studies of these. The exhaust system is modelled as connected pipe and junction elements with lumped thermal capacities. Heat transfer correlations for quasi-steady and transient conditions have been investigated. The catalytic converter is treated as elemental slices in series. Exothermic heat release and heat exchange between the monolith, mat, and shell are described in the model. A similar description is applied to lean NOx trap units.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Engine Heat Transfer for Heat Rejection and Warm-Up Modelling

1997-05-19
971851
A correlation for total gas-side heat transfer rate has been derived from the analysis of engine data for measured heat rejection rate, frictional dissipation, and published data on exhaust port heat transfer. The correlation is related to the form developed by Taylor and Toong, and the analysis draws on this. However, cylinder and exhaust port contributions are separated. Two empirical constants are fixed to best match predicted to measured results for heat rejection to coolant and oil cooler under steady-state conditions, and also for exhaust port heat transfer rates. The separated contributions also defined a correlation for exhaust port heat transfer rate. The description of gas-side heat transfer is suited to needs for the analysis of global thermal behaviour of engines.
Technical Paper

Audit of Fuel Utilisation During the Warm-Up of SI Engines

1997-05-01
971656
Experimental studies of fuel utilisation during the early stages of engine warm-up after cold-starts are reported. The investigation has been carried out on a 1.81, 4 cylinder spark-ignition engine with port electronic fuel injection. The relationship between fuel supplied and fuel accounted for by the analysis of exhaust gas composition shows that a significant mass of fuel supplied is temporarily stored or permanently lost. An interpretation of data is made which allows time-dependent variations of these to be separately resolved and estimates of fuel quantities made. The data covers a range of cold-start conditions down to -5°C at which, on a per cylinder basis, fuel stored peaks typically at around 0.75g and a total of 1g is returned over 100 seconds of engine running. Fuel lost past the piston typically accounts for 2g over 200 to 300 seconds of running.
Technical Paper

Intake Port Fuel Transport and Emissions: The Influence of Injector Type and Fuel Composition

1996-10-01
961996
Experimental studies have been carried out on a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection to examine the influence of injector type and to contrast this with the effects of fuel composition. Intake port fuel transport characteristics and engine-out emissions for fully-warm and warm-up engine operating conditions have been examined as indicators of performance. The investigation has encompassed four types of injector and five gasoline blends. Fuel transport has been characterised using the τ and X parameters. The influence of injector type on these is of similar significance as that of changes in gasoline composition between summer and winter grades. The latter will limit the in-service accuracy of open-loop mixture control during transients. Injector type has a small effect on engine-out emissions under fully-warm operating conditions but has a significant influence on emissions during the early stages of warm-up.
Technical Paper

Transient Air/Fuel Ratio Control of an S.I. Engine Using Neural Networks

1996-02-01
960326
Engine Electronic Control (EEC) systems on spark ignition engines enable a high degree of performance optimisation to be achieved through strategy and calibration details in software, but development times and costs can be high. The range of functions performed by EEC systems, and the level of performance demanded, are increasing and new methods of development are required. In the paper, the use of neural networks in the development and implementation of open-loop control of air/fuel ratio during engine transient operating conditions is described. The investigation has addressed the definition of suitable networks, the procedure and data required to train these, and assessment of real-time performance of the implemented system. The potential benefits of the approach include reduced calibration effort and simplification of the control strategy.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber Walls in Spark Ignition Engines

1995-02-01
950686
The cycle-by-cycle variation of heat transferred per cycle (q) to the combustion chamber surfaces of spark ignition engines has been investigated for quasi-steady and transient conditions produced by throttle movements. The heat transfer calculation is by integration of the instantaneous value over the cycle, using the Woschni correlation for the heat transfer coefficient. By examination of the results obtained, a relatively simple correlation has been identified: This holds both for quasi-steady and transient conditions and is on a per cylinder basis. The analysis has been extended to define a heat flux distribution over the surface of the chamber. This is given by: where F(x/L) is a polynomial function, q″ is the heat transfer per cycle per unit area to head and piston crown surfaces and gives the distribution along the liner
Technical Paper

The Impact of Combustion Phasing on Cycle-by-Cycle Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine

1995-02-01
950687
Cycle-by-cycle pressure data have been recorded for a spark ignition engine operating over a wide range of steady state and perturbed running condition. The data base has been analysed to derive mass fraction burnt, pressure development and work mean effective pressure characteristics for individual cycles. Cross-correlation coefficients have been calculated to identify predominant relationships. The effect of combustion phasing on cross-correlation coefficients is particularly significant and three regimes of behaviour have been identified. These are associated with early, optimal and late cases. The cross-correlations between parameters derived from cycle-by-cycle data do not uniformly reflect trends seen between cycle-averaged values of these. Auto-correlation results have been examined for interactions between successive cycles with less success, although, again combustion phasing can have a significant influence on the strength of auto-correlation coefficients.
Technical Paper

The Use of Vehicle Drive Cycles to Assess Spark Plug Fouling Performance

1994-02-01
940101
Spark plug fouling is a common problem when vehicles are repeatedly operated for very short periods, particularly at low temperatures. This paper describes a test procedure which uses a series of short, high-load drive cycles to assess plug fouling under realistic conditions. The engine is force cooled between drive cycles in order to increase test throughput. Spark plug resistance is shown to be a poor indicator of the effect of fouling on engine performance and the rate of misfiring is given as an alternative measure. An automated technique to detect misfires from engine speed data is described. This has been used to investigate the effect of spark plug type, fuelling level and spark timing on fouling. Spark plugs which are designed to run hotter are found to be more resistant to plug fouling. Isolated adjustments to fuelling level and spark timing calibrations within the range providing acceptable performance have a weak effect on susceptibility to plug fouling.
Technical Paper

A Development Methodology for Improving the Cold Start Performance of Spark Ignition Engines

1994-02-01
940084
Optimising an engine specification to improve cold start performance has been investigated. Taguchi methods were used to define a test programme to assess the effect of seven build factors. Experiments were conducted to measure mixture ratio at the spark plug location after a short period of engine cranking at test conditions covering ± 15°C and three fuel-mass-supplied values. The analysis of the results identified build modifications which improved start quality and reduced HC and CO emissions substantially compared to a reference, base-line build. Injector design and location, and inlet valve timing were found to have most influence on robustness to uncontrolled variations in mixture preparation during starts.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Evaluation of Cold Start Fuelling Strategy and Calibration Details for Spark Ignition Engines

1994-02-01
940085
Spark ignition engines for automotive applications must have good cold start performance characteristics at sub-zero ambient temperatures. Satisfactory performance is most difficult to achieve at the lower end of the temperature range, typically around -30°C. The start characteristics of a particular engine depend on basic design features, starter motor characteristics, and the calibration and strategy used to regulate fuel supply during start up. The paper reports a computational model which enables the investigation of these with the minimum of experimental data. The model has been developed to run on desk-top PC machines, specifically as a CAE development tool. The formulation of the model and the experimental tests were used to generate the input data required for particular applications are described.
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