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Journal Article

Investigating the Potential to Reduce Crankshaft Main Bearing Friction During Engine Warm-up by Raising Oil Feed Temperature

Reducing friction in crankshaft bearings during cold engine operation by heating the oil supply to the main gallery has been investigated through experimental investigations and computational modelling. The experimental work was undertaken on a 2.4l DI diesel engine set up with an external heat source to supply hot oil to the gallery. The aim was to raise the film temperature in the main bearings early in the warm up, producing a reduction in oil viscosity and through this, a reduction in friction losses. The effectiveness of this approach depends on the management of heat losses from the oil. Heat transfer along the oil pathway to the bearings, and within the bearings to the journals and shells, reduces the benefit of the upstream heating.
Journal Article

The Effect of Reducing Compression Ratio on the Work Output and Heat Release Characteristics of a DI Diesel under Cold Start Conditions

An experimental investigation has been carried out to compare the indicated performance and heat release characteristics of a DI diesel engine at compression ratios of 18.4:1 and 15.4:1. The compression ratio was changed by modifying the piston bowl volume; the bore and stroke were unchanged, and the swept volume was nominally 500cc. The engine is a single cylinder variant of modern design which meets Euro 4 emissions requirements. Work output and heat release characteristics for the two compression ratios have been compared at an engine speed of 300 rev/min and test temperatures of 10, -10 and -20°C. A more limited comparison has also been made for higher speeds representative of cold idle at one test temperature (-20°C). The reduction in compression ratio generally produces an increase in peak specific indicated work output at low speeds; this is attributable to a reduction in blowby and heat transfer losses and lower peak rates of heat release increasing cumulative burn.
Technical Paper

Exhaust System Heat Transfer and Catalytic Converter Performance

Three-way catalytic converters used on spark ignition engines have performance and durability characteristics which are effected by the thermal environment in which these operate. The design of the exhaust system and the location of the catalyst unit are important in controlling the range of thermal states the catalyst is exposed to. A model of system thermal behaviour has been developed to support studies of these. The exhaust system is modelled as connected pipe and junction elements with lumped thermal capacities. Heat transfer correlations for quasi-steady and transient conditions have been investigated. The catalytic converter is treated as elemental slices in series. Exothermic heat release and heat exchange between the monolith, mat, and shell are described in the model. A similar description is applied to lean NOx trap units.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Engine Heat Transfer for Heat Rejection and Warm-Up Modelling

A correlation for total gas-side heat transfer rate has been derived from the analysis of engine data for measured heat rejection rate, frictional dissipation, and published data on exhaust port heat transfer. The correlation is related to the form developed by Taylor and Toong, and the analysis draws on this. However, cylinder and exhaust port contributions are separated. Two empirical constants are fixed to best match predicted to measured results for heat rejection to coolant and oil cooler under steady-state conditions, and also for exhaust port heat transfer rates. The separated contributions also defined a correlation for exhaust port heat transfer rate. The description of gas-side heat transfer is suited to needs for the analysis of global thermal behaviour of engines.
Technical Paper

Intra-Cycle Resolution of Heat Transfer to Fuel in the Intake Port of an S.I. Engine

Previously reported studies of heat transfer between the intake port surface, gas flows in the port, and fuel deposited in surface films have been extended to examine details of the heat flux variations which occur within the engine cycle. The dynamic response characteristics of the surface-mounted heat flux sensors have been determined, and measured heat flux data corrected accordingly to account for these characteristics. Details of the model and data processing technique used are described. Corrected intra-cycle variations of heat transfer to fuel deposited have been derived for engine operating conditions at 1000 RPM covering a range of manifold pressures, fuel supply rates, port surface temperatures, and fuel injection timings. Both pump-grade gasoline and isooctane fuel have been used. The effects of operating conditions on the magnitude and features of the heat flux variations are described.
Technical Paper

Fuel Film Evaporation and Heat Transfer in the Intake Port of an S.I. Engine

Surface heat transfer measurements have been taken in the intake port of a single cylinder four valve SI engine running on isooctane fuel. The objective has been to establish how fuel characteristics affect trends in surface heat transfer rates for a range of engine operating conditions. The heat transfer measurements were made using heat flux gauges bonded to the intake port surface in the region where highest rates of fuel deposition occur. The influence on heat transfer rates of the deposited fuel and its subsequent behaviour has been examined by comparing fuel-wetted and dry-surface heat transfer measurements. Heat transfer changes are consistent with trends predicted by convective mass transfer over much of the range of surface temperatures from 20°C to 100°C. Towards the upper temperature limit heat transfer reaches a maximum limited by the rate and distribution of fuel deposition.
Technical Paper

Effect of Coolant Mixture Composition on Engine Heat Rejection Rate

The rate of heat rejection to the coolant system of an internal combustion engine depends upon coolant composition, among other factors, because this influences the coolant side heat transfer coefficient. The correlation developed by Taylor and Toong for heat transfer rate has been modified to account for this effect. The modification retains the gas-to-coolant passage thermal resistance implicit in the original correlation. The modified correlation gives predictions in agreement with experimental data. Compared to 100% water, mixtures of 50% ethylene glycol/50% water lower heat rejection rates by typically 5% and up to 25% in the extreme. This depends upon local conditions in the coolant circuit, which can give rise to different heat transfer regimes. Application of the modified correlation is outlined and illustrated.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Measurements in the Intake Port of a Spark Ignition Engine

Surface-mounted heat flux sensors have been used in the intake port of a fuel injected, spark ignition engine to investigate heat transfer between the surface, the gas flows through the port, and fuel deposited in surface films. The engine is of a four valve per cylinder design, with a bifurcated intake port. For dry-port conditions heat transfer per cycle varies between 0 and 300 J/m2 depending on location, towards the surface at low temperatures and away from the surface at fully-warm conditions. Particular attention has been given to the changes in heat transfer rate associated with fuel deposition. Typically this is of the order of 5 kW/m2 in regions of heavy fuel deposition and varies by a factor of 2 over the period of an engine cycle. During warm-up, as coolant temperature increases from 0 to 90°C, changes in heat transfer associated with fuel deposition typically increase from 300 J/m2 to 1000 J/m2.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber Walls in Spark Ignition Engines

The cycle-by-cycle variation of heat transferred per cycle (q) to the combustion chamber surfaces of spark ignition engines has been investigated for quasi-steady and transient conditions produced by throttle movements. The heat transfer calculation is by integration of the instantaneous value over the cycle, using the Woschni correlation for the heat transfer coefficient. By examination of the results obtained, a relatively simple correlation has been identified: This holds both for quasi-steady and transient conditions and is on a per cylinder basis. The analysis has been extended to define a heat flux distribution over the surface of the chamber. This is given by: where F(x/L) is a polynomial function, q″ is the heat transfer per cycle per unit area to head and piston crown surfaces and gives the distribution along the liner
Technical Paper

The Determination of Heat Transfer from the Combustion Chambers of SI Engines

Two methods of determining the rate of heat transfer from the combustion chamber have been investigated. A First Law analysis is shown to be ill-conditioned because of sensitivity to heat release and gas property calculations. An alternative approach equates cycle-averaged chamber heat transfer to the difference between heat rejected to the coolant and gas heat transfer to the exhaust port. This has been examined as a basis for calibrating the Woschni correlation.
Technical Paper

A Model for the Investigation of Temperature, Heat Flow and Friction Characteristics During Engine Warm-Up

A computational model has been developed to support investigations of temperature, heat flow and friction characteristics, particularly in connection with warm-up behaviour. A lumped capacity model of the engine block and head, empirically derived correlations for local heat transfer and friction losses, and oil and coolant circuit descriptions form the core of the model. Validation of the model and illustrative results are reported.