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Journal Article

The Effects of Cylinder Deactivation on the Thermal Behaviour and Performance of a Three Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2160
A physics based, lumped thermal capacity model of a 1litre, 3 cylinder, turbocharged, directly injected spark ignition engine has been developed to investigate the effects of cylinder deactivation on the thermal behaviour and fuel economy of small capacity, 3 cylinder engines. When one is deactivated, the output of the two firing cylinders is increased by 50%. The largest temperature differences resulting from this are between exhaust ports and between the upper parts of liners of the deactivated cylinder and the adjacent firing cylinder. These differences increase with load. The deactivated cylinder liner cools to near-coolant temperature. Temperatures in the lower engine structure show little response to deactivation. Temperature response times following deactivation or reactivation events are similar. Motoring work for the deactivated cylinder is a minor loss; the net benefit of deactivation diminishes with increasing load.
Technical Paper

A Modified Oil Lubrication System with Flow Control to Reduce Crankshaft Bearing Friction in a Litre 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1045
The oil distribution system of an automotive light duty engine typically has an oil pump mechanically driven through the front-endancillaries-drive or directly off the crankshaft. Delivery pressure is regulated by a relief valve to provide an oil gallery pressure of typically 3 to 4 bar absolute at fully-warm engine running conditions. Electrification of the oil pump drive is one way to decouple pump delivery from engine speed, but this does not alter the flow distribution between parts of the engine requiring lubrication. Here, the behaviour and benefits of a system with an electrically driven, fixed displacement pump and a distributor providing control over flow to crankshaft main bearings and big end bearings is examined. The aim has been to demonstrate that by controlling flow to these bearings, without changing flow to other parts of the engine, significant reductions in engine friction can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Application of Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) Approach for the Modeling of Reacting Biodiesel Fuel Spray using OpenFOAM

2014-10-13
2014-01-2565
Modeling the combustion process of a diesel-biodiesel fuel spray in a 3-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) domain remains challenging and time-consuming despite the recent advancement in computing technologies. Accurate representation of the in-cylinder processes is essential for CFD studies to provide invaluable insights into these events, which are typically limited when using conventional experimental measurement techniques. This is especially true for emerging new fuels such as biodiesels since fundamental understanding of these fuels under combusting environment is still largely unknown. The reported work here is dedicated to evaluating the Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) approach in OpenFOAM® for improved simulation of reacting biodiesel fuel spray. An in-house model for thermo-physical and transport properties is integrated to the code, along with a chemical mechanism comprising 113 species and 399 reactions.
Technical Paper

Predicted Paths of Soot Particles in the Cylinders of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0148
Soot formation and distribution inside the cylinder of a light-duty direct injection diesel engine, have been predicted using Kiva-3v CFD software. Pathlines of soot particles traced from specific in-cylinder locations and crank angle instants have been explored using the results for cylinder charge motion predicted by the Kiva-3v code. Pathlines are determined assuming soot particles are massless and follow charge motion. Coagulation and agglomeration have not been taken into account. High rates of soot formation dominate during and just after the injection. Oxidation becomes dominant after the injection has terminated and throughout the power stroke. Computed soot pathlines show that soot particles formed just below the fuel spray axis during the early injection period are more likely to travel to the cylinder wall boundary layer. Soot particles above the fuel spray have lesser tendency to be conveyed to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Compression Ratio on Indicated Emissions and Fuel Economy Responses to Input Variables for a D.I Diesel Engine Combustion System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0697
The effect of compression ratio on sensitivity to changes in start of injection and air-fuel ratio has been investigated on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine at fixed low and medium speeds and loads. Compression ratio was set to 17.9:1 or 13.7:1 by using pistons with different bowl sizes. Injection timing and air-to-fuel ratio were swept around a nominal map point at which gross IMEP and NOx values were matched for the two compression ratios. It was found that CO, HC and ISFC were higher at low compression ratio, but the soot/NOx trade-off improved and this could be exploited to reduce the fuel economy penalty. Sensitivity to inputs is generally similar, but high compression ratio tended to have steeper response gradients. Reducing compression ratio to 13.7 gave rise to a marked degradation of performance at light load, producing high CO emissions and a fall in combustion efficiency. This could be eased by reducing rail pressure, but the advantage in smoke emission was lost.
Technical Paper

A New Floating-Liner Test Rig Design to Investigate Factors Influencing Piston-Liner Friction

2012-04-16
2012-01-1328
The largest contribution to engine rubbing friction is made by the piston and piston rings running in the cylinder liner. The magnitude and characteristics of the friction behaviour and the influence on these of factors such as surface roughness, piston design and lubricant properties are of keen interest. Investigating presents experimental challenges, including potential problems of uncontrolled build-to-build variability when component changes are made. These are addressed in the design of a new motored piston and floating liner rig. The design constrains transverse movement of a single liner using cantilevered mounts at the top and bottom. The mounts and two high stiffness strain gauged load cells constrain vertical movement. The outputs of the load cells are processed to extract the force contribution associated with friction. The liner, piston and crankshaft parts were taken from a EuroV-compliant, HPCR diesel engine with a swept capacity of 550cc per cylinder.
Journal Article

The Effect of Piston Cooling Jets on Diesel Engine Piston Temperatures, Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2012-04-16
2012-01-1212
A Ford 2.4-liter 115PS light-duty diesel engine was modified to allow solenoid control of the oil feed to the piston cooling jets, enabling these to be switched on or off on demand. The influence of the jets on piston temperatures, engine thermal state, gaseous emissions and fuel economy has been investigated. With the jets switched off, piston temperatures were measured to be between 23 and 88°C higher. Across a range of speed-load points, switching off the jets increased engine-out emissions of NOx typically by 3%, and reduced emissions of CO by 5-10%. Changes in HC were of the same order and were reductions at most conditions. Fuel consumption increased at low-speed, high-load conditions and decreased at high-speed, low-load conditions. Applying the results to the NEDC drive cycle suggests active on/off control of the jets could reduce engine-out emissions of CO by 6%, at the expense of a 1% increase in NOx, compared to the case when the jets are on continuously.
Journal Article

Investigating the Potential to Reduce Crankshaft Main Bearing Friction During Engine Warm-up by Raising Oil Feed Temperature

2012-04-16
2012-01-1216
Reducing friction in crankshaft bearings during cold engine operation by heating the oil supply to the main gallery has been investigated through experimental investigations and computational modelling. The experimental work was undertaken on a 2.4l DI diesel engine set up with an external heat source to supply hot oil to the gallery. The aim was to raise the film temperature in the main bearings early in the warm up, producing a reduction in oil viscosity and through this, a reduction in friction losses. The effectiveness of this approach depends on the management of heat losses from the oil. Heat transfer along the oil pathway to the bearings, and within the bearings to the journals and shells, reduces the benefit of the upstream heating.
Journal Article

Investigations of Piston Ring Pack and Skirt Contributions to Motored Engine Friction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1046
An experimental study has been carried out to examine the influence of ring tan load and piston skirt modifications on piston assembly friction under motored engine conditions for initial temperatures of -20, 0 and 30°C and motoring speeds within the range 400 to 2000 rev/min. The study has been carried out using the block, crankshaft and pistons of a 2.4I, 4 cylinder diesel engine with a bore and stroke of 89.9mm and 94.6mm respectively. The pistons examined are typical of current designs for light duty diesels. A range of ring pack and piston skirt modifications have been tested, in each case as part of a complete piston assembly. The first changes produced reductions in fmep of between 5% and 38%. The reduction was due to improved skirt and ring pack designs in equal measure, each giving improvements of up to 20%. From this baseline eliminating the tan load of the piston rings was projected to give a further reduction in fmep of between 10% and 20%.
Journal Article

The Effect of Reducing Compression Ratio on the Work Output and Heat Release Characteristics of a DI Diesel under Cold Start Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1306
An experimental investigation has been carried out to compare the indicated performance and heat release characteristics of a DI diesel engine at compression ratios of 18.4:1 and 15.4:1. The compression ratio was changed by modifying the piston bowl volume; the bore and stroke were unchanged, and the swept volume was nominally 500cc. The engine is a single cylinder variant of modern design which meets Euro 4 emissions requirements. Work output and heat release characteristics for the two compression ratios have been compared at an engine speed of 300 rev/min and test temperatures of 10, -10 and -20°C. A more limited comparison has also been made for higher speeds representative of cold idle at one test temperature (-20°C). The reduction in compression ratio generally produces an increase in peak specific indicated work output at low speeds; this is attributable to a reduction in blowby and heat transfer losses and lower peak rates of heat release increasing cumulative burn.
Technical Paper

Fuel Transport to the Crankcase, Oil Dilution and HC Return with Breather Flow During the Cold Operation of a SI Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1235
Fuel losses to the crankcase, fuel/oil interactions, and fuel return as unburned hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been investigated. Hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been measured during motored and firing engine operation over a range of temperatures. Fuel desorption from the sump oil accounts for a small proportion of this. The major source is hydrocarbons transported past the piston with blowby. After a cold start, around 85% of these are retained in oil films below the ring pack. The recirculation of oil from the films to the sump contributes to bulk oil dilution. This appears to be the prime mechanism by which fuel is lost to oil dilution during cold operation. The mechanism becomes less effective as engine warm-up progresses. At fully-warm oil temperatures (∼100°C), only about 5% are removed from the blowby.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Engine Heat Transfer for Heat Rejection and Warm-Up Modelling

1997-05-19
971851
A correlation for total gas-side heat transfer rate has been derived from the analysis of engine data for measured heat rejection rate, frictional dissipation, and published data on exhaust port heat transfer. The correlation is related to the form developed by Taylor and Toong, and the analysis draws on this. However, cylinder and exhaust port contributions are separated. Two empirical constants are fixed to best match predicted to measured results for heat rejection to coolant and oil cooler under steady-state conditions, and also for exhaust port heat transfer rates. The separated contributions also defined a correlation for exhaust port heat transfer rate. The description of gas-side heat transfer is suited to needs for the analysis of global thermal behaviour of engines.
Technical Paper

Audit of Fuel Utilisation During the Warm-Up of SI Engines

1997-05-01
971656
Experimental studies of fuel utilisation during the early stages of engine warm-up after cold-starts are reported. The investigation has been carried out on a 1.81, 4 cylinder spark-ignition engine with port electronic fuel injection. The relationship between fuel supplied and fuel accounted for by the analysis of exhaust gas composition shows that a significant mass of fuel supplied is temporarily stored or permanently lost. An interpretation of data is made which allows time-dependent variations of these to be separately resolved and estimates of fuel quantities made. The data covers a range of cold-start conditions down to -5°C at which, on a per cylinder basis, fuel stored peaks typically at around 0.75g and a total of 1g is returned over 100 seconds of engine running. Fuel lost past the piston typically accounts for 2g over 200 to 300 seconds of running.
Technical Paper

Intra-Cycle Resolution of Heat Transfer to Fuel in the Intake Port of an S.I. Engine

1996-10-01
961995
Previously reported studies of heat transfer between the intake port surface, gas flows in the port, and fuel deposited in surface films have been extended to examine details of the heat flux variations which occur within the engine cycle. The dynamic response characteristics of the surface-mounted heat flux sensors have been determined, and measured heat flux data corrected accordingly to account for these characteristics. Details of the model and data processing technique used are described. Corrected intra-cycle variations of heat transfer to fuel deposited have been derived for engine operating conditions at 1000 RPM covering a range of manifold pressures, fuel supply rates, port surface temperatures, and fuel injection timings. Both pump-grade gasoline and isooctane fuel have been used. The effects of operating conditions on the magnitude and features of the heat flux variations are described.
Technical Paper

Fuel Film Evaporation and Heat Transfer in the Intake Port of an S.I. Engine

1996-05-01
961120
Surface heat transfer measurements have been taken in the intake port of a single cylinder four valve SI engine running on isooctane fuel. The objective has been to establish how fuel characteristics affect trends in surface heat transfer rates for a range of engine operating conditions. The heat transfer measurements were made using heat flux gauges bonded to the intake port surface in the region where highest rates of fuel deposition occur. The influence on heat transfer rates of the deposited fuel and its subsequent behaviour has been examined by comparing fuel-wetted and dry-surface heat transfer measurements. Heat transfer changes are consistent with trends predicted by convective mass transfer over much of the range of surface temperatures from 20°C to 100°C. Towards the upper temperature limit heat transfer reaches a maximum limited by the rate and distribution of fuel deposition.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber Walls in Spark Ignition Engines

1995-02-01
950686
The cycle-by-cycle variation of heat transferred per cycle (q) to the combustion chamber surfaces of spark ignition engines has been investigated for quasi-steady and transient conditions produced by throttle movements. The heat transfer calculation is by integration of the instantaneous value over the cycle, using the Woschni correlation for the heat transfer coefficient. By examination of the results obtained, a relatively simple correlation has been identified: This holds both for quasi-steady and transient conditions and is on a per cylinder basis. The analysis has been extended to define a heat flux distribution over the surface of the chamber. This is given by: where F(x/L) is a polynomial function, q″ is the heat transfer per cycle per unit area to head and piston crown surfaces and gives the distribution along the liner
Technical Paper

The Determination of Heat Transfer from the Combustion Chambers of SI Engines

1993-04-01
931131
Two methods of determining the rate of heat transfer from the combustion chamber have been investigated. A First Law analysis is shown to be ill-conditioned because of sensitivity to heat release and gas property calculations. An alternative approach equates cycle-averaged chamber heat transfer to the difference between heat rejected to the coolant and gas heat transfer to the exhaust port. This has been examined as a basis for calibrating the Woschni correlation.
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