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Technical Paper

Soot in the Lubricating Oil: An Overlooked Concern for the Gasoline Direct Injection Engine?

2019-04-02
2019-01-0301
Formation of soot is a known phenomenon for diesel engines, however, only recently emerged for gasoline engines with the introduction of direct injection systems. Soot-in-oil samples from a three-cylinder turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine have been analysed. The samples were collected from the oil sump after periods of use in predominantly urban driving conditions with start-stop mode activated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to measure the soot content in the drained oils. Soot deposition rates were similar to previously reported rates for diesel engines, i.e. 1 wt% per 15,000 km, thus indicating a similar importance. Morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Images showed fractal agglomerates comprising multiple primary particles with characteristic core-shell nanostructure. Furthermore, large amorphous structures were observed. Primary particle sizes ranged from 12 to 55 nm, with a mean diameter of 30 nm and mode at 31 nm.
Technical Paper

Morphological Characterisation of Diesel Soot in Oil and the Associated Extraction Dependence

2018-04-03
2018-01-0935
The size and morphology of soot particles and agglomerates extracted from lubricating oil drawn from the sump of a diesel engine have been investigated and compared using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA). Samples were prepared for electron microscopy imaging by both centrifugation and solvent extraction to investigate the impact of these procedures on the morphological characteristics, such as skeleton length and width and circularity, of the obtained soot. It was shown that centrifugation increases the extent of agglomeration within the sample, with 15% of the agglomerates above 200 nm compared to only 11% in the solvent extracted soot. It was also observed that the width of centrifugation extracted soot was typically 10 nm to 20 nm larger than that of solvent extracted soot, suggesting that centrifugation forces the individual agglomerate chains together.
Journal Article

The Application of New Approaches to the Analysis of Deposits from the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT)

2017-10-08
2017-01-2293
Studies of diesel system deposits continue to be the subject of interest and publications worldwide. The introduction of high pressure common rail systems resulting in high fuel temperatures in the system with the concomitant use of fuels of varying solubilizing ability (e.g. ULSD and FAME blends) have seen deposits formed at the tip of the injector and on various internal injector components. Though deposit control additives (DCAs) have been successfully deployed to mitigate the deposit formation, work is still required to understand the nature and composition of these deposits. The study of both tip and internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) has seen the development of a number of bench techniques in an attempt to mimic field injector deposits in the laboratory. One of the most used of these is the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester or JFTOT (ASTM D3241).
Technical Paper

Variation Aware Assembly Systems for Aircraft Wings

2016-09-27
2016-01-2106
Aircraft manufacturers desire to increase production to keep up with anticipated demand. To achieve this, the aerospace industry requires a significant increase in the manufacturing and assembly performance to reach required output levels. This work therefore introduces the Variation Aware Assembly (VAA) concept and identifies its suitability for implementation into aircraft wing assembly processes. The VAA system concept focuses on achieving assemblies towards the nominal dimensions, as opposed to traditional tooling methods that aim to achieve assemblies anywhere within the tolerance band. It enables control of the variation found in Key Characteristics (KC) that will allow for an increase in the assembly quality and product performance. The concept consists of utilizing metrology data from sources both before and during the assembly process, to precisely position parts using motion controllers.
Technical Paper

A Modified Oil Lubrication System with Flow Control to Reduce Crankshaft Bearing Friction in a Litre 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1045
The oil distribution system of an automotive light duty engine typically has an oil pump mechanically driven through the front-endancillaries-drive or directly off the crankshaft. Delivery pressure is regulated by a relief valve to provide an oil gallery pressure of typically 3 to 4 bar absolute at fully-warm engine running conditions. Electrification of the oil pump drive is one way to decouple pump delivery from engine speed, but this does not alter the flow distribution between parts of the engine requiring lubrication. Here, the behaviour and benefits of a system with an electrically driven, fixed displacement pump and a distributor providing control over flow to crankshaft main bearings and big end bearings is examined. The aim has been to demonstrate that by controlling flow to these bearings, without changing flow to other parts of the engine, significant reductions in engine friction can be achieved.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation on the Influence of In-Cylinder Mixture Distribution from Multiple Pilot Injections on Cold Idle Behaviour of a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2708
Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm and at −20°C. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis. Kiva 3v was then used to model the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution. A 60° sector of mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. The combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation. The CFD analysis covers evolutions from intake valve closing to start of combustion. The number of injections was varied from 1 to 4, but the total fuel injected was kept constant at 17mm3/stroke. Start of main injection timing was fixed at 7.5°BTDC.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles on the Viscosity of Lubricant Oil from Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1481
The influence of size and concentration of carbon nanoparticle on the viscosity of an SAE 5W-30 lubricant oil has been investigated experimentally. Data were collected for oil samples drawn from sump of light duty automotive diesel engines. The average size of soot particles in the used oil samples was in the range of 180-320nm with concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 percentage by weight (wt. %.). A Brookfield DV-II Pro rotary viscometer was used to measure dynamic viscosity at low shear rates and temperatures of 40°C and 90°C. Nanoparticle concentration and particle size distribution were evaluated using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) respectively. The viscosity of suspensions of graphite powder in lubricant oil was also investigated for concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 wt. %. The results show that dynamic viscosity increases with increasing soot content and decreasing temperature.
Journal Article

A Novel Diagnostics Tool for Measuring Soot Agglomerates Size Distribution in Used Automotive Lubricant Oils

2014-04-01
2014-01-1479
The determination of size distribution of soot particles and agglomerates in oil samples using a Nanosight LM14 to perform Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is described. This is the first application of the technique to sizing soot-in-oil agglomerates and offers the advantages of relatively high rates of sample analysis and low cost compared to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Lubricating oil samples were drawn from the sump of automotive diesel engines run under a mix of light duty operating conditions. The oil samples were diluted with heptane before analysing. Results from NTA analysis were compared with the outputs of a more conventional analysis based on Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). This work shows that soot-in-oil exists as agglomerates with average size of 115 nm. This is also in good agreement with TEM analysis carried out in a previous work. NTA can measure soot particles in polydisperse oil solutions and report the size distribution of soot-in-oil aggregates.
Technical Paper

Information on the Aromatic Structure of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits From Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1387
The nature of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) continues to be of importance to the industry, with field problems such as injector sticking, loss of power, increased emissions and fuel consumption being found. The deposits have their origins in the changes in emission regulations that have seen increasingly severe conditions experienced by fuels because of high temperatures and high pressures of modern common rail systems and the introduction of low sulphur fuels. Furthermore, the effect of these deposits is amplified by the tight engineering tolerances of the moving parts of such systems. The nature and thus understanding of such deposits is necessary to both minimising their formation and the development of effective diesel deposit control additives (DCA).
Journal Article

Emerging Technologies for Use in Aerospace Bonded Assemblies

2013-09-17
2013-01-2134
Several new technologies are now emerging to improve adhesive supply and formulation along with surface treatments that have the potential to offer significant improvements to both surface energy and cleanliness [3]. Additionally, the miniaturisation of laboratory techniques into portable equipment offers potential for online surface energy and chemical analysis measurement for use as quality control measures in a production environment. An overview of newly available technology is given here with several devices studied in further detail. Technologies assessed further in this paper are; portable surface contact angle measurement, ambient pressure plasma cleaning, portable FTIR measurement and adhesive mixing equipment. A number of potential applications are outlined for each device based on the operational technique. The practical aspects of implementation and the perceived technology readiness levels for operation, implementation and results are also given.
Technical Paper

Predicted Paths of Soot Particles in the Cylinders of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0148
Soot formation and distribution inside the cylinder of a light-duty direct injection diesel engine, have been predicted using Kiva-3v CFD software. Pathlines of soot particles traced from specific in-cylinder locations and crank angle instants have been explored using the results for cylinder charge motion predicted by the Kiva-3v code. Pathlines are determined assuming soot particles are massless and follow charge motion. Coagulation and agglomeration have not been taken into account. High rates of soot formation dominate during and just after the injection. Oxidation becomes dominant after the injection has terminated and throughout the power stroke. Computed soot pathlines show that soot particles formed just below the fuel spray axis during the early injection period are more likely to travel to the cylinder wall boundary layer. Soot particles above the fuel spray have lesser tendency to be conveyed to the cylinder wall.
Journal Article

The Effect of Piston Cooling Jets on Diesel Engine Piston Temperatures, Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2012-04-16
2012-01-1212
A Ford 2.4-liter 115PS light-duty diesel engine was modified to allow solenoid control of the oil feed to the piston cooling jets, enabling these to be switched on or off on demand. The influence of the jets on piston temperatures, engine thermal state, gaseous emissions and fuel economy has been investigated. With the jets switched off, piston temperatures were measured to be between 23 and 88°C higher. Across a range of speed-load points, switching off the jets increased engine-out emissions of NOx typically by 3%, and reduced emissions of CO by 5-10%. Changes in HC were of the same order and were reductions at most conditions. Fuel consumption increased at low-speed, high-load conditions and decreased at high-speed, low-load conditions. Applying the results to the NEDC drive cycle suggests active on/off control of the jets could reduce engine-out emissions of CO by 6%, at the expense of a 1% increase in NOx, compared to the case when the jets are on continuously.
Journal Article

Investigating the Potential to Reduce Crankshaft Main Bearing Friction During Engine Warm-up by Raising Oil Feed Temperature

2012-04-16
2012-01-1216
Reducing friction in crankshaft bearings during cold engine operation by heating the oil supply to the main gallery has been investigated through experimental investigations and computational modelling. The experimental work was undertaken on a 2.4l DI diesel engine set up with an external heat source to supply hot oil to the gallery. The aim was to raise the film temperature in the main bearings early in the warm up, producing a reduction in oil viscosity and through this, a reduction in friction losses. The effectiveness of this approach depends on the management of heat losses from the oil. Heat transfer along the oil pathway to the bearings, and within the bearings to the journals and shells, reduces the benefit of the upstream heating.
Journal Article

The Influence of Injection Strategy and Glow Plug Temperature on Cycle by Cycle Stability Under Cold Idling Conditions for a Low Compression Ratio, HPCR Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1071
Experimental studies have been undertaken on a single-cylinder HPCR diesel engine with a compression ratio of 15.5:1 to explore the effect of fuel injection strategy on cycle by cycle stability. The influence of the number, separation and quantity of pilot injections on the coefficient of variation of IMEP has been investigated at -20°C, 1000 rev/min, post-start idling conditions. Injection strategy and glow plug temperature trade-off has also been investigated at a range of soak temperatures. Up to four pilot injections have been used. For timing of the main injection near to the optimum, CoVIMEP values of 10% or better can be achieved. Closer spacing of injections improved stability and extended the range of timings to meet target stability. The best combinations of pilot number and pilot quantity varied with total fuel delivered.
Technical Paper

A New Floating-Liner Test Rig Design to Investigate Factors Influencing Piston-Liner Friction

2012-04-16
2012-01-1328
The largest contribution to engine rubbing friction is made by the piston and piston rings running in the cylinder liner. The magnitude and characteristics of the friction behaviour and the influence on these of factors such as surface roughness, piston design and lubricant properties are of keen interest. Investigating presents experimental challenges, including potential problems of uncontrolled build-to-build variability when component changes are made. These are addressed in the design of a new motored piston and floating liner rig. The design constrains transverse movement of a single liner using cantilevered mounts at the top and bottom. The mounts and two high stiffness strain gauged load cells constrain vertical movement. The outputs of the load cells are processed to extract the force contribution associated with friction. The liner, piston and crankshaft parts were taken from a EuroV-compliant, HPCR diesel engine with a swept capacity of 550cc per cylinder.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Compression Ratio on Indicated Emissions and Fuel Economy Responses to Input Variables for a D.I Diesel Engine Combustion System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0697
The effect of compression ratio on sensitivity to changes in start of injection and air-fuel ratio has been investigated on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine at fixed low and medium speeds and loads. Compression ratio was set to 17.9:1 or 13.7:1 by using pistons with different bowl sizes. Injection timing and air-to-fuel ratio were swept around a nominal map point at which gross IMEP and NOx values were matched for the two compression ratios. It was found that CO, HC and ISFC were higher at low compression ratio, but the soot/NOx trade-off improved and this could be exploited to reduce the fuel economy penalty. Sensitivity to inputs is generally similar, but high compression ratio tended to have steeper response gradients. Reducing compression ratio to 13.7 gave rise to a marked degradation of performance at light load, producing high CO emissions and a fall in combustion efficiency. This could be eased by reducing rail pressure, but the advantage in smoke emission was lost.
Technical Paper

Fixturing and Tooling for Wing Assembly with Reconfigurable Datum System Pickup

2011-10-18
2011-01-2556
The aerospace manufacturing sector is continuously seeking automation due to increased demand for the next generation single-isle aircraft. In order to reduce weight and fuel consumption aircraft manufacturers have increasingly started to use more composites as part of the structure. The manufacture and assembly of composites poses different constraints and challenges compared to the more traditional aircraft build consisting of metal components. In order to overcome these problems and to achieve the desired production rate existing manufacturing technologies have to be improved. New technologies and build concepts have to be developed in order to achieve the rate and ramp up of production and cost saving. This paper investigates how to achieve the rib hole key characteristic (KC) in a composite wing box assembly process. When the rib hole KC is out of tolerances, possibly, the KC can be achieved by imposing it by means of adjustable tooling and fixturing elements.
Technical Paper

Diesel Injector Deposits - An Issue That Has Evolved with Engine Technology

2011-08-30
2011-01-1923
Diesel engines have traditionally been favoured in heavy-duty applications for their fuel economy, robustness, reliability and relative lack of fuel sensitivity. Recently it has seen a growth in its popularity in light duty applications due particularly to its fuel efficiency. However, as the engine technology and particularly the fuel injection equipment has evolved to meet ever stricter emissions legislation the engines have become more sensitive to deposit formation resulting from changes in fuel quality. This paper reviews bouts of concern over diesel fuel injector deposits, possible causes for the phenomenon and test methods designed to screen fuels to eliminate problems.
Journal Article

A Novel Technique for Investigating the Nature and Origins of Deposits Formed in High Pressure Fuel Injection Equipment

2009-11-02
2009-01-2637
Recent developments in diesel fuel injection equipment coupled with moves to using ULSD and biodiesel blends has seen an increase in the number of reports, from both engine manufacturers and fleet operators, regarding fuel system deposit issues. Preliminary work performed to characterise these deposits showed them to be complicated mixtures, predominantly carbon like but also containing other possible carbon precursor materials. This paper describes the application of the combination of hydropyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to the analysis of these deposits. It also discusses the insights that such analysis can bring to the constitution and origin of these deposits.
Journal Article

The Effect of Reducing Compression Ratio on the Work Output and Heat Release Characteristics of a DI Diesel under Cold Start Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1306
An experimental investigation has been carried out to compare the indicated performance and heat release characteristics of a DI diesel engine at compression ratios of 18.4:1 and 15.4:1. The compression ratio was changed by modifying the piston bowl volume; the bore and stroke were unchanged, and the swept volume was nominally 500cc. The engine is a single cylinder variant of modern design which meets Euro 4 emissions requirements. Work output and heat release characteristics for the two compression ratios have been compared at an engine speed of 300 rev/min and test temperatures of 10, -10 and -20°C. A more limited comparison has also been made for higher speeds representative of cold idle at one test temperature (-20°C). The reduction in compression ratio generally produces an increase in peak specific indicated work output at low speeds; this is attributable to a reduction in blowby and heat transfer losses and lower peak rates of heat release increasing cumulative burn.
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