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Technical Paper

Modulation Limit Based Control Strategy for More Electric Aircraft Generator System

2018-10-30
2018-01-1937
Vector based control strategies have been extensively employed for drive systems, and in recent times to the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) generator based systems. The control schemes should maintain the bus voltage and adhere to the generator system voltage and current limits throughout a wide speed range. Typically, the current limit is prioritised first due to ease of implementation and simple control structure. As a result, the voltage limit can be exceeded due to change in operating conditions or disturbance factors. In flux weakening regions, this may affect the controllability of the power converter and lead to generator system instability. In this paper, an alternative control strategy has been investigated to address this drawback. The proposed control scheme refers to the modulation index limit which is the ratio between the power converter input and output voltages as the voltage limit.
Technical Paper

Integrated Design of Motor Drives Using Random Heuristic Optimization for Aerospace Applications

2017-09-19
2017-01-2030
High power density for aerospace motor drives is a key factor in the successful realization of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept. An integrated system design approach offers optimization opportunities, which could lead to further improvements in power density. However this requires multi-disciplinary modelling and the handling of a complex optimization problem that is discrete and nonlinear in nature. This paper proposes a multi-level approach towards applying random heuristic optimization to the integrated motor design problem. Integrated optimizations are performed independently and sequentially at different levels assigned according to the 4-level modelling paradigm for electric systems. This paper also details a motor drive sizing procedure, which poses as the optimization problem to solve here. Finally, results comparing the proposed multi-level approach with a more traditional single-level approach is presented for a 2.5 kW actuator motor drive design.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Performance of Uncoated GPF in Real World Driving Using Experimental Results and CFD modelling

2017-09-04
2017-24-0128
Environmental authorities such as EPA, VCA have enforced stringent emissions legislation governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere. Of particular interest is the challenge introduced by the limit on particulate number (PN) counting (#/km) and real driving emissions (RDE) testing; with new emissions legislation being shortly introduced for the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered the most immediate solution. While engine calibration and testing over the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) allow for the limits to be met, real driving emission and cold start constitute a real challenge. The present work focuses on an experimental durability study on road under real world driving conditions. Two sets of experiments were carried out. The first study analyzed a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) (2.4 liter, diameter 5.2” round) installed in the underfloor (UF) position and driven up to 200k km.
Technical Paper

Design of a Reconfigurable Assembly Cell for Multiple Aerostructures

2016-09-27
2016-01-2105
This paper presents novel development of a reconfigurable assembly cell which assembles multiple aerostructure products. Most aerostructure assembly systems are designed to produce one variant only. For multiple variants, each assembly typically has a dedicated assembly cell, despite most assemblies requiring a process of drilling and fastening to similar tolerances. Assembly systems that produce more than one variant do exist but have long changeover or involve extensive retrofitting. Quick assembly of multiple products using one assembly system offers significant cost savings from reductions in capital expenditure and lead time. Recent trends advocate Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS) as a solution; designed to have exactly the functionality necessary to produce a group of similar components. A state-of-the-art review finds significant benefits in deploying RAS for a group of aerostructures variants.
Technical Paper

An Integrated System’s Approach Towards Aero Engine Subsystems Design

2016-09-20
2016-01-2020
This paper proposes an integrated system’s approach towards design of aero-engine subsystems - seals, bearing chamber, generator and power system. In a conventional design approach, the design of the overall system is typically broken-down into subsystems. Therefore, the focus is not on the mutual interaction between different components or subsystems, resulting in a lack of characterization of the overall system performance at the design phase. A systems design approach adopts a much broader outlook, focusing on the overall optimization of the system performance. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part presents an integrated approach for modelling the electrical, mechanical and hydraulic subsystems of aero engines, in order to analyze the fluid dynamics interactions and reduce the transversal shaft vibrations. For this, an in-line starter/generator and an air-riding seal are studied.
Journal Article

Control Design for PMM-Based Generator Fed by Active Front-End Rectifier in More-Electric Aircraft

2016-09-20
2016-01-1987
The future aircraft electrical power system is expected to be more efficient, safer, simpler in servicing and easier in maintenance. As a result, many existing hydraulic and pneumatic power driven systems are being replaced by their electrical counterparts. This trend is known as a move towards the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA). As a result, a large number of new electrical loads have been introduced in order to power many primary functions including actuation, de-icing, cabin air-conditioning, and engine start. Therefore electric power generation systems have a key role in supporting this technological trend. Advances in modern power electronics allow the concept of starter/generator (S/G) which enables electrical engine start and power generation using the same electrical machine. This results in substantial improvements in power density and reduced overall weight.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Methods for Modelling Mid-to-High Frequency Vibro-Acoustic Energy Distributions in a Vehicle Floor Structure

2016-06-15
2016-01-1853
Car floor structures typically contain a number of smaller-scale features which make them challenging for vibro-acoustic modelling beyond the low frequency regime. The floor structure considered here consists of a thin shell floor panel connected to a number of rails through spot welds leading to an interesting multi-scale modelling problem. Structures of this type are arguably best modelled using hybrid methods, where a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) description of the larger thin shell regions is combined with a finite element model (FEM) for the stiffer rails. In this way the modal peaks from the stiff regions are included in the overall prediction, which a pure SEA treatment would not capture. However, in the SEA regions, spot welds, geometrically dependent features and directivity of the wave field are all omitted. In this work we present an SEA/FEM hybrid model of a car floor and discuss an alternative model for the SEA subsystem using Discrete Flow Mapping (DFM).
Technical Paper

The Role of New Automotive Engineering Masters Programme in the Industry in China

2016-04-05
2016-01-0171
China is the world’s largest automotive producer and has the world’s biggest automobile market. However, in the past decades, the development of China’s automotive industry has depended primarily on the foreign direct investment; domestic automakers have struggled in the lower ranks of car producers. In recent years, China’s automotive industry, supported by government policies, has been improving their Research and Development (R&D) capacity, to compete with their international peers. Against this background, China’s automotive industry requires a large number of R&D professionals who have not only a higher degree but also the applied and practical knowledge and skills of research. For the purpose of meeting the industry’s needs, a new Professional Automotive Engineering Masters Programme was launched in 2009, which aims to deliver the Masters to be the R&D professionals in the future.
Journal Article

Reconfigurable Assembly System Design Methodology: A Wing Assembly Case Study

2015-09-15
2015-01-2594
Current assembly systems that deal with large, complex structures present a number of challenges with regard to improving operational performance. Specifically, aerospace assembly systems comprise a vast array of interrelated elements interacting in a myriad of ways, resulting in a deeply complex process that requires a multi-disciplined team of engineers. The current approach to ramp-up production rate involves building additional main assembly fixtures which require large investment and lead times up to 24 months. Within Airbus Operations Ltd there is a requirement to improve the capacity and flexibility of assembly systems, thereby reducing non-recurring costs and time-to-market. Recent trends to improve manufacturing agility advocate Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS) as a viable solution. Yet, adding reconfigurability to assembly systems further increases both the operational and design complexity.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Power Sharing Strategies for the DC Electrical Power System in the MEA

2015-09-15
2015-01-2410
In this paper, the load sharing principles in dc-distribution electric power systems (EPS) for future more-electric aircraft (MEA) are investigated. The study is conducted using a potential MEA EPS architecture with multiple sources feeding into the main dc bus. Corresponding reduced-order EPS models are established. The influence of the cable impedance on the load sharing accuracy is analyzed and sharing error is quantized in mathematical equations. In addition, source/load impedance of the droop-controlled system has been derived leading to the discussion of the stability issues in multi-feed dc EPS under different droop control strategies. The influence of load sharing ratio on the EPS stability margins has been investigated. The theoretical findings were supported by time-domain simulations in Matlab/SimPower.
Technical Paper

Functional Modeling of 18-Pulse Autotransformer Rectifier Units for Aircraft Applications

2015-09-15
2015-01-2412
This paper aims to develop a general functional model of multi-pulse Auto-Transformer Rectifier Units (ATRUs) for More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) applications. The ATRU is seen as the most reliable way readily to be applied in the MEA. Interestingly, there is no model of ATRUs suitable for unbalanced or faulty conditions at the moment. This paper is aimed to fill this gap and develop functional models suitable for both balanced and unbalanced conditions. Using the fact that the DC voltage and current are strongly related to the voltage and current vectors at the AC terminals of ATRUs, a generic functional model has been developed for both symmetric and asymmetric ATRUs. The developed functional models are validated through simulation and experiment. The efficiency of the developed model is also demonstrated by comparing with corresponding detailed switching models. The developed functional model shows significant improvement of simulation efficiency, especially under balanced conditions.
Technical Paper

More Leaders and Fewer Initiatives: Key Ideas for the Future of Engineering

2015-04-14
2015-01-0411
Panel Discussions held at the SAE World Congress in both 2013 and 2014 observed that a shortage of good quality engineering talent formed a chronic and major challenge. (“Good quality” refers to applicants that would be shortlisted for interview.) While doubts have been expressed in some quarters, the shortage is confirmed by automotive sector employers and the Panel's view was that it was symptomatic of a range of issues, all of which have some bearing on the future of the profession. Initiatives to improve recruitment and retention have had varying degrees of success. Efforts need to be intensified in primary schools where negative perceptions develop and deepen. Schemes like AWIM that operate on a large scale and are designed to supplement school curricula should operate at an international level. Universities represent the entry point into the engineering profession and their role in the recruitment process as well as education and training is crucial.
Technical Paper

Application of Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) Approach for the Modeling of Reacting Biodiesel Fuel Spray using OpenFOAM

2014-10-13
2014-01-2565
Modeling the combustion process of a diesel-biodiesel fuel spray in a 3-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) domain remains challenging and time-consuming despite the recent advancement in computing technologies. Accurate representation of the in-cylinder processes is essential for CFD studies to provide invaluable insights into these events, which are typically limited when using conventional experimental measurement techniques. This is especially true for emerging new fuels such as biodiesels since fundamental understanding of these fuels under combusting environment is still largely unknown. The reported work here is dedicated to evaluating the Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) approach in OpenFOAM® for improved simulation of reacting biodiesel fuel spray. An in-house model for thermo-physical and transport properties is integrated to the code, along with a chemical mechanism comprising 113 species and 399 reactions.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation on the Influence of In-Cylinder Mixture Distribution from Multiple Pilot Injections on Cold Idle Behaviour of a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2708
Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm and at −20°C. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis. Kiva 3v was then used to model the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution. A 60° sector of mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. The combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation. The CFD analysis covers evolutions from intake valve closing to start of combustion. The number of injections was varied from 1 to 4, but the total fuel injected was kept constant at 17mm3/stroke. Start of main injection timing was fixed at 7.5°BTDC.
Journal Article

Spectroscopic Studies of Internal Injector Deposits (IDID) Resulting from the Use of Non-Commercial Low Molecular Weight Polyisobutylenesuccinimide (PIBSI)

2014-10-13
2014-01-2720
Since 2009, there has been a rise in deposits of various types found in diesel fuel injection systems. They have been identified in the filter, the injector tip and recently inside the injector. The latter internal diesel injector deposits (IDIDs) have been the subject of a number of recent publications, and are the subject of investigations by CRC (Central Research Council Diesel Performance Group-Deposit Panel Bench/ Rig Investigation sub panel) in the US and CEN (Committee European de Normalisation TC19/WG24 Injector Deposit Task Force) and CEC (Coordinating European Council TDFG-110 engine test) in Europe. In the literature one of the internal injector deposit types, amide lacquers, has been associated with a poorly characterised noncommercial low molecular weight polyisobutylene succinimide detergent which also lacked provenance.
Technical Paper

Stability Study of DC Electric Power System with Paralleled Generators for More-Electric Aircraft

2014-09-16
2014-01-2114
Many More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) Electric Power System (EPS) architecture paradigms are being studied in order to provide the on-board electrical loads with high-quality supply and to ensure safe operation. EPS with dc distribution appears to be more promising due to higher efficiency, higher reliability, easier integration and lower overall weight. Another advantage of dc systems is the ease of sources paralleling, together with the optimization of load power sharing, this can lead to further EPS weight reduction. The DC bus can be fed by multiple sources such as generators, batteries and other energy storage devices. Many loads in MEA EPS are tightly controlled by power electronic converters and often behave as constant power loads (CPL). These are known as main contributors to the degradation of EPS stability margins. Therefore, stability study is one of the key topics in the assessment of potential EPS architecture candidates.
Technical Paper

Design and Modeling of a 45kW, Switched Reluctance Starter-Generator for a Regional Jet Application

2014-09-16
2014-01-2158
A 45kW, switched reluctance type, starter-generator, having a 1:4 constant power speed range has been designed as a possible candidate for a regional jet application. In the first section of this paper, a review of the major starter-generator topologies considered for the aerospace application is provided, highlighting the advantages of choosing the Switched reluctance topology for such a safety critical application. Following this, the required torque speed characteristic of the machine, along with the imposed physical constraints, in terms of cooling and outer dimensions, are also detailed. Section III provides a description of the Electromagnetic design, and challenges encountered in meeting both the low speed, peak torque node, at 8000rpm, and the high speed, high power node, at 32000rpm. The induced mechanical stresses in the rotor at such high speeds have also been evaluated and used as a material selection criterion for such a design as presented in section III.
Journal Article

Axiomatic Design of a Reconfigurable Assembly System for Primary Wing Structures

2014-09-16
2014-01-2249
Aerospace assembly systems comprise a vast array of interrelated elements interacting in a myriad of ways. Consequently, aerospace assembly system design is a deeply complex process that requires a multi-disciplined team of engineers. Recent trends to improve manufacturing agility suggest reconfigurability as a solution to the increasing demand for improved flexibility, time-to-market and overall reduction in non-recurring costs. Yet, adding reconfigurability to assembly systems further increases operational complexity and design complexity. Despite the increase in complexity for reconfigurable assembly, few formal methodologies or frameworks exist specifically to support the design of Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS). This paper presents a novel reconfigurable assembly system design framework (RASDF) that can be applied to wing structure assembly as well as many other RAS design problems.
Journal Article

Implementing Determinate Assembly for the Leading Edge Sub-Assembly of Aircraft Wing Manufacture

2014-09-16
2014-01-2252
The replacement for the current single-aisle aircraft will need to be manufactured at a rate significantly higher that of current production. One way that production rate can be increased is by reducing the processing time for assembly operations. This paper presents research that was applied to the build philosophy of the leading edge of a laminar flow European wing demonstrator. The paper describes the implementation of determinate assembly for the rib to bracket assembly interface. By optimising the diametric and the positional tolerances of the holes on the two bracket types and ribs, determinate assembly was successfully implemented. The bracket to rib interface is now secured with no tooling or post processes other than inserting and tightening the fastener. This will reduce the tooling costs and eliminates the need for local drilling, de-burring and re-assembly of the bracket to rib interface, reducing the cycle time of the operation.
Journal Article

Discrete Flow Mapping - A Mesh Based Simulation Tool for Mid-to-High Frequency Vibro-Acoustic Excitation of Complex Automotive Structures

2014-06-30
2014-01-2079
Modelling the vibro-acoustic properties of mechanical built-up structures is a challenging task, especially in the mid to high frequency regime, even with the computational resources available today. Standard modelling tools for complex vehicle parts include finite and boundary element methods (FEM and BEM), as well as Multi-Body Simulations (MBS). These methods are, however, robust only in the low frequency regime. In particular, FEM is not scalable to higher frequencies due to the prohibitive increase in model size. We have recently developed a new method called Discrete Flow Mapping (DFM), which extends existing high frequency methods, such as Statistical Energy Analysis or the so-called Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA), to work on meshed structures. It provides for the first time detailed spatial information about the vibrational energy of a whole built-up structure of arbitrary complexity in this frequency range.
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