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Technical Paper

Potential Improvements in Turbofan’s Performance by Electric Power Transfer

2018-10-30
2018-01-1962
Bleeding in engines is essential to mitigate the unmatched air massflow between low and High Pressure (HP) compressors at low speed settings, thus avoiding unstable operation due to surge and phenomena. However, by emerging the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) the engine is equipped with electrical machines on both high and Low Pressure (LP) spools which enables transfer of power electrically from one spool to another and hence provides the opportunity to operate engine core components closer to their optimum design point at off-design conditions. At lower power setting of the engine, HPC speed can be increased by taking power from LP shaft and feeding it to HP shaft which can lead to the removal of the bleeding system which in turn reduces weight and fuel consumption and help to overcome engine instability issues. Fuel consumption can be decreased by decreasing inconsistent thrust with the aircraft mission for flight and ground idle settings.
Technical Paper

Cyclically Resolved Flame and Flow Imaging in an SI Engine Operating with Future Ethanol Fuels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0655
This work was concerned with study of the in-cylinder flow field and flame development in a spark ignition research engine equipped with Bowditch piston optical access. High-speed natural light (chemiluminescence) imaging and simultaneous in-cylinder pressure data measurement and analysis were used to understand the fundamentals of flame propagation for a variety of ethanol fuels blended with either gasoline or iso-octane. PIV was undertaken on the same engine in a motoring operation at a horizontal imaging plane close to TDC (10 mm below the fire face) throughout the compression stroke (30°,40°,90° and 180°bTDC) for a low load engine operating condition at 1500rpm/0.5 bar inlet plenum pressure. Up to 1500 cycles were considered to determine the ensemble average flow-field and turbulent kinetic energy. Finally, comparisons were made between the flame and flow experiments to understand the apparent interactions.
Journal Article

The Effects of Cylinder Deactivation on the Thermal Behaviour and Performance of a Three Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2160
A physics based, lumped thermal capacity model of a 1litre, 3 cylinder, turbocharged, directly injected spark ignition engine has been developed to investigate the effects of cylinder deactivation on the thermal behaviour and fuel economy of small capacity, 3 cylinder engines. When one is deactivated, the output of the two firing cylinders is increased by 50%. The largest temperature differences resulting from this are between exhaust ports and between the upper parts of liners of the deactivated cylinder and the adjacent firing cylinder. These differences increase with load. The deactivated cylinder liner cools to near-coolant temperature. Temperatures in the lower engine structure show little response to deactivation. Temperature response times following deactivation or reactivation events are similar. Motoring work for the deactivated cylinder is a minor loss; the net benefit of deactivation diminishes with increasing load.
Technical Paper

Information on the Aromatic Structure of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits From Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1387
The nature of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) continues to be of importance to the industry, with field problems such as injector sticking, loss of power, increased emissions and fuel consumption being found. The deposits have their origins in the changes in emission regulations that have seen increasingly severe conditions experienced by fuels because of high temperatures and high pressures of modern common rail systems and the introduction of low sulphur fuels. Furthermore, the effect of these deposits is amplified by the tight engineering tolerances of the moving parts of such systems. The nature and thus understanding of such deposits is necessary to both minimising their formation and the development of effective diesel deposit control additives (DCA).
Technical Paper

Reducing Energy Losses from Automotive Engine Lubricants by Thermal Isolation of the Engine Mass

2014-04-01
2014-01-0672
The thermal efficiency of an internal combustion engine at steady state temperatures is typically in the region of 25-35%[1]. In a cold start situation, this reduces to be between 10% and 20% [2]. A significant contributor to the reduced efficiency is poor performance by the engine lubricant. Sub optimal viscosity resulting from cold temperatures leads to poor lubrication and a subsequent increase in friction and fuel consumption. Typically, the engine lubricant takes approximately twenty minutes [3] to reach steady state temperatures. Therefore, if the lubricant can reach its steady state operating temperature sooner, the engine's thermal efficiency will be improved. It is hypothesised that, by decoupling the lubricant from the thermal mass of the surrounding engine architecture, it is possible to reduce the thermal energy loss from the lubricant to the surrounding metal structure in the initial stages of warm-up.
Journal Article

The Effect of Piston Cooling Jets on Diesel Engine Piston Temperatures, Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2012-04-16
2012-01-1212
A Ford 2.4-liter 115PS light-duty diesel engine was modified to allow solenoid control of the oil feed to the piston cooling jets, enabling these to be switched on or off on demand. The influence of the jets on piston temperatures, engine thermal state, gaseous emissions and fuel economy has been investigated. With the jets switched off, piston temperatures were measured to be between 23 and 88°C higher. Across a range of speed-load points, switching off the jets increased engine-out emissions of NOx typically by 3%, and reduced emissions of CO by 5-10%. Changes in HC were of the same order and were reductions at most conditions. Fuel consumption increased at low-speed, high-load conditions and decreased at high-speed, low-load conditions. Applying the results to the NEDC drive cycle suggests active on/off control of the jets could reduce engine-out emissions of CO by 6%, at the expense of a 1% increase in NOx, compared to the case when the jets are on continuously.
Technical Paper

Constraints on Fuel Injection and EGR Strategies for Diesel PCCI-Type Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-1327
An experimental study has been carried out to explore what limits fuel injection and EGR strategies when trying to run a PCCI-type mode of combustion on an engine with current generation hardware. The engine is a turbocharged V6 DI diesel with (1600 bar) HPCR fuel injection equipment and a cooled external EGR system. The variables examined have been the split and timings of fuel injections and the level of EGR; the responses investigated have been ignition delay, heat release, combustion noise, engine-out emissions and brake specific fuel consumption. Although PCCI-type combustion strategies can be effective in reducing NOx and soot emissions, it proved difficult to achieve this without either a high noise or a fuel economy penalty.
Technical Paper

Characterisation of DISI Emissions and Fuel Economy in Homogeneous and Stratified Charge Modes of Operation

2001-09-24
2001-01-3671
An experimental study of the performance of a reverse tumble, DISI engine is reported. Specific fuel consumption and engine-out emissions have been investigated for both homogeneous and stratified modes of fuel injection. Trends in performance with varying AFR, EGR, spark and injection timings have been explored. It is shown that neural networks can be trained to describe these trends accurately for even the most complex case of stratified charge operation with exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Gas/Fuel Ratio on Combustion Stability and Misfire Limits of Spark Ignition Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1208
The deterioration of combustion stability as lean operating limits and misfire conditions are approached has been investigated experimentally. The study has been carried out on spark ignition engines with port fuel injection and four-valves-per-cylinder. Test conditions cover fully-warm and cold operation, and ranges of air/fuel ratio, exhaust gas recirculation rates and spark timing. An approximate method of calculating gas/fuel ratio is described. This is used to show that combustion stability, characterised by the coefficient of variation of i.m.e.p., is a function of calculated gas/fuel ratio and spark timing until near to the limit of stability. A rapid deterioration in stability and the onset of weak, partial burning occurs at a gas/fuel ratio between 24:1 and 26:1 under fully-warm operating conditions, and around one gas/fuel ratio lower under cold operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0556
A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Technical Paper

Exhaust System Heat Transfer and Catalytic Converter Performance

1999-03-01
1999-01-0453
Three-way catalytic converters used on spark ignition engines have performance and durability characteristics which are effected by the thermal environment in which these operate. The design of the exhaust system and the location of the catalyst unit are important in controlling the range of thermal states the catalyst is exposed to. A model of system thermal behaviour has been developed to support studies of these. The exhaust system is modelled as connected pipe and junction elements with lumped thermal capacities. Heat transfer correlations for quasi-steady and transient conditions have been investigated. The catalytic converter is treated as elemental slices in series. Exothermic heat release and heat exchange between the monolith, mat, and shell are described in the model. A similar description is applied to lean NOx trap units.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Drive Cycle Emissions and Fuel Consumption

1997-05-01
971603
A method of predicting HC, CO and NOx emissions and fuel-used over drive cycles has been developed. This has been applied to FTP-75 and ECE+EUDC drive cycles amended to include cold-start and warm-up. The method requires only fully-warm steady state indicated performance data to be available for the engine. This is used in conjunction with a model of engine thermal behaviour and friction characteristics, and vehicle/drive cycle specifications enabling engine brake load/speed variations to be defined. A time marching prediction of engine-out emissions and fuel consumption is carried out taking into account factors which include high engine friction and poor mixture preparation after cold-start. Comparisons with experimental data indicate that fuel consumption and emissions can be predicted to quantitative accuracy. The method has been applied to compare and contrast the importance of various operating regimes during the two cycles.
Technical Paper

Intake Port Fuel Transport and Emissions: The Influence of Injector Type and Fuel Composition

1996-10-01
961996
Experimental studies have been carried out on a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection to examine the influence of injector type and to contrast this with the effects of fuel composition. Intake port fuel transport characteristics and engine-out emissions for fully-warm and warm-up engine operating conditions have been examined as indicators of performance. The investigation has encompassed four types of injector and five gasoline blends. Fuel transport has been characterised using the τ and X parameters. The influence of injector type on these is of similar significance as that of changes in gasoline composition between summer and winter grades. The latter will limit the in-service accuracy of open-loop mixture control during transients. Injector type has a small effect on engine-out emissions under fully-warm operating conditions but has a significant influence on emissions during the early stages of warm-up.
Technical Paper

Fuel Film Evaporation and Heat Transfer in the Intake Port of an S.I. Engine

1996-05-01
961120
Surface heat transfer measurements have been taken in the intake port of a single cylinder four valve SI engine running on isooctane fuel. The objective has been to establish how fuel characteristics affect trends in surface heat transfer rates for a range of engine operating conditions. The heat transfer measurements were made using heat flux gauges bonded to the intake port surface in the region where highest rates of fuel deposition occur. The influence on heat transfer rates of the deposited fuel and its subsequent behaviour has been examined by comparing fuel-wetted and dry-surface heat transfer measurements. Heat transfer changes are consistent with trends predicted by convective mass transfer over much of the range of surface temperatures from 20°C to 100°C. Towards the upper temperature limit heat transfer reaches a maximum limited by the rate and distribution of fuel deposition.
Technical Paper

Transient Air/Fuel Ratio Control of an S.I. Engine Using Neural Networks

1996-02-01
960326
Engine Electronic Control (EEC) systems on spark ignition engines enable a high degree of performance optimisation to be achieved through strategy and calibration details in software, but development times and costs can be high. The range of functions performed by EEC systems, and the level of performance demanded, are increasing and new methods of development are required. In the paper, the use of neural networks in the development and implementation of open-loop control of air/fuel ratio during engine transient operating conditions is described. The investigation has addressed the definition of suitable networks, the procedure and data required to train these, and assessment of real-time performance of the implemented system. The potential benefits of the approach include reduced calibration effort and simplification of the control strategy.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Measurements in the Intake Port of a Spark Ignition Engine

1996-02-01
960273
Surface-mounted heat flux sensors have been used in the intake port of a fuel injected, spark ignition engine to investigate heat transfer between the surface, the gas flows through the port, and fuel deposited in surface films. The engine is of a four valve per cylinder design, with a bifurcated intake port. For dry-port conditions heat transfer per cycle varies between 0 and 300 J/m2 depending on location, towards the surface at low temperatures and away from the surface at fully-warm conditions. Particular attention has been given to the changes in heat transfer rate associated with fuel deposition. Typically this is of the order of 5 kW/m2 in regions of heavy fuel deposition and varies by a factor of 2 over the period of an engine cycle. During warm-up, as coolant temperature increases from 0 to 90°C, changes in heat transfer associated with fuel deposition typically increase from 300 J/m2 to 1000 J/m2.
Technical Paper

Fuel Transport Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engines for Transient Fuel Compensation

1995-02-01
950067
The fuel transfer characteristics of the intake port of a fuel-injected spark ignition engine have been determined for engine warm-up conditions following cold starts at temperature down to -30°C and extending to fully-warm states, using a method based upon perturbing fuel injection rate and recording AFR response. The variation of τ and x parameters over a range of temperatures, engine speeds, AFR, and engine loads has been evaluated. Temperature and speed have greatest influence, AFR and load effects are small. Application of the data to define transient fuel compensation requirements has been examined.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber Walls in Spark Ignition Engines

1995-02-01
950686
The cycle-by-cycle variation of heat transferred per cycle (q) to the combustion chamber surfaces of spark ignition engines has been investigated for quasi-steady and transient conditions produced by throttle movements. The heat transfer calculation is by integration of the instantaneous value over the cycle, using the Woschni correlation for the heat transfer coefficient. By examination of the results obtained, a relatively simple correlation has been identified: This holds both for quasi-steady and transient conditions and is on a per cylinder basis. The analysis has been extended to define a heat flux distribution over the surface of the chamber. This is given by: where F(x/L) is a polynomial function, q″ is the heat transfer per cycle per unit area to head and piston crown surfaces and gives the distribution along the liner
Technical Paper

The Impact of Combustion Phasing on Cycle-by-Cycle Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine

1995-02-01
950687
Cycle-by-cycle pressure data have been recorded for a spark ignition engine operating over a wide range of steady state and perturbed running condition. The data base has been analysed to derive mass fraction burnt, pressure development and work mean effective pressure characteristics for individual cycles. Cross-correlation coefficients have been calculated to identify predominant relationships. The effect of combustion phasing on cross-correlation coefficients is particularly significant and three regimes of behaviour have been identified. These are associated with early, optimal and late cases. The cross-correlations between parameters derived from cycle-by-cycle data do not uniformly reflect trends seen between cycle-averaged values of these. Auto-correlation results have been examined for interactions between successive cycles with less success, although, again combustion phasing can have a significant influence on the strength of auto-correlation coefficients.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Evaluation of Cold Start Fuelling Strategy and Calibration Details for Spark Ignition Engines

1994-02-01
940085
Spark ignition engines for automotive applications must have good cold start performance characteristics at sub-zero ambient temperatures. Satisfactory performance is most difficult to achieve at the lower end of the temperature range, typically around -30°C. The start characteristics of a particular engine depend on basic design features, starter motor characteristics, and the calibration and strategy used to regulate fuel supply during start up. The paper reports a computational model which enables the investigation of these with the minimum of experimental data. The model has been developed to run on desk-top PC machines, specifically as a CAE development tool. The formulation of the model and the experimental tests were used to generate the input data required for particular applications are described.
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