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Technical Paper

Morphological Characterisation of Gasoline Soot-in-Oil: Development of Semi-Automated 2D-TEM and Comparison with Novel High-Throughput 3D-TEM

2019-09-09
2019-24-0042
Morphology of soot nanoparticles is characteristically complex and 3-dimensional, and plays a defining role in soot-related phenomena. Morphological characterisation of soot is essential to understand the extent of such effects, including harm to human health, and develop strategies to mitigate them. Use of 2D-TEM for characterisation is associated with numerous and significant sources of error and uncertainty related to a 2D-3D information gap. Volume reconstruction by 3D-TEM avoids many of these sources of error, and has been shown in simulation studies to be highly accurate. However, the technique has traditionally been too slow to permit study of enough individual structures to satisfactorily characterise a bulk soot-sample. Similarly, the prevalence of manual image processing in 2D-TEM studies of soot can limit characterisations to as few as 50 individual particles per sample.
Technical Paper

Soot in the Lubricating Oil: An Overlooked Concern for the Gasoline Direct Injection Engine?

2019-04-02
2019-01-0301
Formation of soot is a known phenomenon for diesel engines, however, only recently emerged for gasoline engines with the introduction of direct injection systems. Soot-in-oil samples from a three-cylinder turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine have been analysed. The samples were collected from the oil sump after periods of use in predominantly urban driving conditions with start-stop mode activated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to measure the soot content in the drained oils. Soot deposition rates were similar to previously reported rates for diesel engines, i.e. 1 wt% per 15,000 km, thus indicating a similar importance. Morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Images showed fractal agglomerates comprising multiple primary particles with characteristic core-shell nanostructure. Furthermore, large amorphous structures were observed. Primary particle sizes ranged from 12 to 55 nm, with a mean diameter of 30 nm and mode at 31 nm.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Accuracy of Soot Nanoparticle Morphology Measurements Using Three-Dimensional Electron Tomography

2019-04-02
2019-01-1188
Morphology plays an important role in determining behaviour and impact of soot nanoparticles, including effect on human health, atmospheric optical properties, contribution to engine wear, and role in marine ecology. However, its nanoscopic size has limited the ability to directly measure useful morphological parameters such as surface area and effective volume. Recently, 3D morphology characterization of soot nanoparticles via electron tomography has been the subject of several introductory studies. So-called ‘3D-TEM’ has been posited as an improvement over traditional 2D-TEM characterization due to the elimination of the error-inducing information gap that exists between 3-dimensional soot structures and 2-dimensional TEM projections. Little follow-up work has been performed due to difficulties with developing methodologies into robust high-throughput techniques.
Technical Paper

Morphological Characterisation of Diesel Soot in Oil and the Associated Extraction Dependence

2018-04-03
2018-01-0935
The size and morphology of soot particles and agglomerates extracted from lubricating oil drawn from the sump of a diesel engine have been investigated and compared using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA). Samples were prepared for electron microscopy imaging by both centrifugation and solvent extraction to investigate the impact of these procedures on the morphological characteristics, such as skeleton length and width and circularity, of the obtained soot. It was shown that centrifugation increases the extent of agglomeration within the sample, with 15% of the agglomerates above 200 nm compared to only 11% in the solvent extracted soot. It was also observed that the width of centrifugation extracted soot was typically 10 nm to 20 nm larger than that of solvent extracted soot, suggesting that centrifugation forces the individual agglomerate chains together.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Performance of Uncoated GPF in Real World Driving Using Experimental Results and CFD modelling

2017-09-04
2017-24-0128
Environmental authorities such as EPA, VCA have enforced stringent emissions legislation governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere. Of particular interest is the challenge introduced by the limit on particulate number (PN) counting (#/km) and real driving emissions (RDE) testing; with new emissions legislation being shortly introduced for the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered the most immediate solution. While engine calibration and testing over the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) allow for the limits to be met, real driving emission and cold start constitute a real challenge. The present work focuses on an experimental durability study on road under real world driving conditions. Two sets of experiments were carried out. The first study analyzed a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) (2.4 liter, diameter 5.2” round) installed in the underfloor (UF) position and driven up to 200k km.
Technical Paper

Modeling of In-Cylinder Soot Particle Size Evolution and Distribution in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1075
The focus of this study is to analyse changes in soot particle size along the predicted pathlines as they pass through different in-cylinder combustion histories obtained from Kiva-3v CFD simulation with a series of Matlab routines. 3500 locations representing soot particles were selected inside the cylinder at 8° CA ATDC as soot was formed in high concentration at this CA. The dominant soot particle size was recorded within the size range of 20-50 nm at earlier CA and shifted to 10-20 nm after 20° CA ATDC. Soot particle quantities reduce sharply until 20° CA ATDC after which they remain steady at around 1500 particles. Soot particles inside the bowl region tend to stick to the bowl walls and those remaining in the bowl experience an increase in size. Soot particles that move to the upper bowl and squish regions were observed to experience a decrease in size.
Technical Paper

Information on the Aromatic Structure of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits From Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1387
The nature of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) continues to be of importance to the industry, with field problems such as injector sticking, loss of power, increased emissions and fuel consumption being found. The deposits have their origins in the changes in emission regulations that have seen increasingly severe conditions experienced by fuels because of high temperatures and high pressures of modern common rail systems and the introduction of low sulphur fuels. Furthermore, the effect of these deposits is amplified by the tight engineering tolerances of the moving parts of such systems. The nature and thus understanding of such deposits is necessary to both minimising their formation and the development of effective diesel deposit control additives (DCA).
Technical Paper

Investigating the Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles on the Viscosity of Lubricant Oil from Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1481
The influence of size and concentration of carbon nanoparticle on the viscosity of an SAE 5W-30 lubricant oil has been investigated experimentally. Data were collected for oil samples drawn from sump of light duty automotive diesel engines. The average size of soot particles in the used oil samples was in the range of 180-320nm with concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 percentage by weight (wt. %.). A Brookfield DV-II Pro rotary viscometer was used to measure dynamic viscosity at low shear rates and temperatures of 40°C and 90°C. Nanoparticle concentration and particle size distribution were evaluated using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) respectively. The viscosity of suspensions of graphite powder in lubricant oil was also investigated for concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 wt. %. The results show that dynamic viscosity increases with increasing soot content and decreasing temperature.
Journal Article

A Novel Diagnostics Tool for Measuring Soot Agglomerates Size Distribution in Used Automotive Lubricant Oils

2014-04-01
2014-01-1479
The determination of size distribution of soot particles and agglomerates in oil samples using a Nanosight LM14 to perform Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is described. This is the first application of the technique to sizing soot-in-oil agglomerates and offers the advantages of relatively high rates of sample analysis and low cost compared to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Lubricating oil samples were drawn from the sump of automotive diesel engines run under a mix of light duty operating conditions. The oil samples were diluted with heptane before analysing. Results from NTA analysis were compared with the outputs of a more conventional analysis based on Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). This work shows that soot-in-oil exists as agglomerates with average size of 115 nm. This is also in good agreement with TEM analysis carried out in a previous work. NTA can measure soot particles in polydisperse oil solutions and report the size distribution of soot-in-oil aggregates.
Technical Paper

Predicted Paths of Soot Particles in the Cylinders of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0148
Soot formation and distribution inside the cylinder of a light-duty direct injection diesel engine, have been predicted using Kiva-3v CFD software. Pathlines of soot particles traced from specific in-cylinder locations and crank angle instants have been explored using the results for cylinder charge motion predicted by the Kiva-3v code. Pathlines are determined assuming soot particles are massless and follow charge motion. Coagulation and agglomeration have not been taken into account. High rates of soot formation dominate during and just after the injection. Oxidation becomes dominant after the injection has terminated and throughout the power stroke. Computed soot pathlines show that soot particles formed just below the fuel spray axis during the early injection period are more likely to travel to the cylinder wall boundary layer. Soot particles above the fuel spray have lesser tendency to be conveyed to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Compression Ratio on Indicated Emissions and Fuel Economy Responses to Input Variables for a D.I Diesel Engine Combustion System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0697
The effect of compression ratio on sensitivity to changes in start of injection and air-fuel ratio has been investigated on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine at fixed low and medium speeds and loads. Compression ratio was set to 17.9:1 or 13.7:1 by using pistons with different bowl sizes. Injection timing and air-to-fuel ratio were swept around a nominal map point at which gross IMEP and NOx values were matched for the two compression ratios. It was found that CO, HC and ISFC were higher at low compression ratio, but the soot/NOx trade-off improved and this could be exploited to reduce the fuel economy penalty. Sensitivity to inputs is generally similar, but high compression ratio tended to have steeper response gradients. Reducing compression ratio to 13.7 gave rise to a marked degradation of performance at light load, producing high CO emissions and a fall in combustion efficiency. This could be eased by reducing rail pressure, but the advantage in smoke emission was lost.
Journal Article

The Effect of Piston Cooling Jets on Diesel Engine Piston Temperatures, Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2012-04-16
2012-01-1212
A Ford 2.4-liter 115PS light-duty diesel engine was modified to allow solenoid control of the oil feed to the piston cooling jets, enabling these to be switched on or off on demand. The influence of the jets on piston temperatures, engine thermal state, gaseous emissions and fuel economy has been investigated. With the jets switched off, piston temperatures were measured to be between 23 and 88°C higher. Across a range of speed-load points, switching off the jets increased engine-out emissions of NOx typically by 3%, and reduced emissions of CO by 5-10%. Changes in HC were of the same order and were reductions at most conditions. Fuel consumption increased at low-speed, high-load conditions and decreased at high-speed, low-load conditions. Applying the results to the NEDC drive cycle suggests active on/off control of the jets could reduce engine-out emissions of CO by 6%, at the expense of a 1% increase in NOx, compared to the case when the jets are on continuously.
Technical Paper

Constraints on Fuel Injection and EGR Strategies for Diesel PCCI-Type Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-1327
An experimental study has been carried out to explore what limits fuel injection and EGR strategies when trying to run a PCCI-type mode of combustion on an engine with current generation hardware. The engine is a turbocharged V6 DI diesel with (1600 bar) HPCR fuel injection equipment and a cooled external EGR system. The variables examined have been the split and timings of fuel injections and the level of EGR; the responses investigated have been ignition delay, heat release, combustion noise, engine-out emissions and brake specific fuel consumption. Although PCCI-type combustion strategies can be effective in reducing NOx and soot emissions, it proved difficult to achieve this without either a high noise or a fuel economy penalty.
Technical Paper

Natural and Environmentally Responsive Building Envelopes

2007-07-09
2007-01-3056
In a context of global warming and our needs to reduce CO2 emissions, building envelopes will play an important role. A new imperative has been put forth to architects and engineers to develop innovative materials, components and systems, in order to make building envelopes adaptive and responsive to variable and extreme climate conditions. Envelopes serve multiple functions, from shielding the interior environment to collecting, storing and generating energy. Perhaps a more recent concern of terrestrial habitats is permeability and leakages within the building envelope. Such air tight and concealed envelopes with zero particle exchange are a necessity and already exist in regard to space capsules and habitats. This paper attempts to acknowledge existing and visionary envelope concepts and their functioning in conjunction with maintaining a favourable interior environment. It introduces several criteria and requirements of advanced façades along with interior pressurization control.
Technical Paper

DISI Engine Spark and Fuel Injection Timings. Effects, Compromise and Robustness

2001-09-24
2001-01-3672
DISI engine emissions and fuel economy are strongly dependent upon fuel injection and spark timings, particularly when the engine is operating in stratified charge mode. Experimental studies of the effects of injection and spark timings and the interaction between these are described. The sensitivity of HC and NOx emissions to timings during stratified charge operation, the comparison of performance under stratified and homogeneous charge modes of operation and the rationale for mode switch point settings are investigated. The high sensitivity of emissions to injection and spark timing settings gives rise to potential robustness issues. These are described.
Technical Paper

Characterisation of DISI Emissions and Fuel Economy in Homogeneous and Stratified Charge Modes of Operation

2001-09-24
2001-01-3671
An experimental study of the performance of a reverse tumble, DISI engine is reported. Specific fuel consumption and engine-out emissions have been investigated for both homogeneous and stratified modes of fuel injection. Trends in performance with varying AFR, EGR, spark and injection timings have been explored. It is shown that neural networks can be trained to describe these trends accurately for even the most complex case of stratified charge operation with exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Gas/Fuel Ratio on Combustion Stability and Misfire Limits of Spark Ignition Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1208
The deterioration of combustion stability as lean operating limits and misfire conditions are approached has been investigated experimentally. The study has been carried out on spark ignition engines with port fuel injection and four-valves-per-cylinder. Test conditions cover fully-warm and cold operation, and ranges of air/fuel ratio, exhaust gas recirculation rates and spark timing. An approximate method of calculating gas/fuel ratio is described. This is used to show that combustion stability, characterised by the coefficient of variation of i.m.e.p., is a function of calculated gas/fuel ratio and spark timing until near to the limit of stability. A rapid deterioration in stability and the onset of weak, partial burning occurs at a gas/fuel ratio between 24:1 and 26:1 under fully-warm operating conditions, and around one gas/fuel ratio lower under cold operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Transport to the Crankcase, Oil Dilution and HC Return with Breather Flow During the Cold Operation of a SI Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1235
Fuel losses to the crankcase, fuel/oil interactions, and fuel return as unburned hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been investigated. Hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been measured during motored and firing engine operation over a range of temperatures. Fuel desorption from the sump oil accounts for a small proportion of this. The major source is hydrocarbons transported past the piston with blowby. After a cold start, around 85% of these are retained in oil films below the ring pack. The recirculation of oil from the films to the sump contributes to bulk oil dilution. This appears to be the prime mechanism by which fuel is lost to oil dilution during cold operation. The mechanism becomes less effective as engine warm-up progresses. At fully-warm oil temperatures (∼100°C), only about 5% are removed from the blowby.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0556
A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Drive Cycle Emissions and Fuel Consumption

1997-05-01
971603
A method of predicting HC, CO and NOx emissions and fuel-used over drive cycles has been developed. This has been applied to FTP-75 and ECE+EUDC drive cycles amended to include cold-start and warm-up. The method requires only fully-warm steady state indicated performance data to be available for the engine. This is used in conjunction with a model of engine thermal behaviour and friction characteristics, and vehicle/drive cycle specifications enabling engine brake load/speed variations to be defined. A time marching prediction of engine-out emissions and fuel consumption is carried out taking into account factors which include high engine friction and poor mixture preparation after cold-start. Comparisons with experimental data indicate that fuel consumption and emissions can be predicted to quantitative accuracy. The method has been applied to compare and contrast the importance of various operating regimes during the two cycles.
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