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Technical Paper

Potential Improvements in Turbofan’s Performance by Electric Power Transfer

2018-10-30
2018-01-1962
Bleeding in engines is essential to mitigate the unmatched air massflow between low and High Pressure (HP) compressors at low speed settings, thus avoiding unstable operation due to surge and phenomena. However, by emerging the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) the engine is equipped with electrical machines on both high and Low Pressure (LP) spools which enables transfer of power electrically from one spool to another and hence provides the opportunity to operate engine core components closer to their optimum design point at off-design conditions. At lower power setting of the engine, HPC speed can be increased by taking power from LP shaft and feeding it to HP shaft which can lead to the removal of the bleeding system which in turn reduces weight and fuel consumption and help to overcome engine instability issues. Fuel consumption can be decreased by decreasing inconsistent thrust with the aircraft mission for flight and ground idle settings.
Technical Paper

Information on the Aromatic Structure of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits From Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1387
The nature of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) continues to be of importance to the industry, with field problems such as injector sticking, loss of power, increased emissions and fuel consumption being found. The deposits have their origins in the changes in emission regulations that have seen increasingly severe conditions experienced by fuels because of high temperatures and high pressures of modern common rail systems and the introduction of low sulphur fuels. Furthermore, the effect of these deposits is amplified by the tight engineering tolerances of the moving parts of such systems. The nature and thus understanding of such deposits is necessary to both minimising their formation and the development of effective diesel deposit control additives (DCA).
Journal Article

Emerging Technologies for Use in Aerospace Bonded Assemblies

2013-09-17
2013-01-2134
Several new technologies are now emerging to improve adhesive supply and formulation along with surface treatments that have the potential to offer significant improvements to both surface energy and cleanliness [3]. Additionally, the miniaturisation of laboratory techniques into portable equipment offers potential for online surface energy and chemical analysis measurement for use as quality control measures in a production environment. An overview of newly available technology is given here with several devices studied in further detail. Technologies assessed further in this paper are; portable surface contact angle measurement, ambient pressure plasma cleaning, portable FTIR measurement and adhesive mixing equipment. A number of potential applications are outlined for each device based on the operational technique. The practical aspects of implementation and the perceived technology readiness levels for operation, implementation and results are also given.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Compression Ratio on Indicated Emissions and Fuel Economy Responses to Input Variables for a D.I Diesel Engine Combustion System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0697
The effect of compression ratio on sensitivity to changes in start of injection and air-fuel ratio has been investigated on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine at fixed low and medium speeds and loads. Compression ratio was set to 17.9:1 or 13.7:1 by using pistons with different bowl sizes. Injection timing and air-to-fuel ratio were swept around a nominal map point at which gross IMEP and NOx values were matched for the two compression ratios. It was found that CO, HC and ISFC were higher at low compression ratio, but the soot/NOx trade-off improved and this could be exploited to reduce the fuel economy penalty. Sensitivity to inputs is generally similar, but high compression ratio tended to have steeper response gradients. Reducing compression ratio to 13.7 gave rise to a marked degradation of performance at light load, producing high CO emissions and a fall in combustion efficiency. This could be eased by reducing rail pressure, but the advantage in smoke emission was lost.
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