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Technical Paper

Constraints on Fuel Injection and EGR Strategies for Diesel PCCI-Type Combustion

An experimental study has been carried out to explore what limits fuel injection and EGR strategies when trying to run a PCCI-type mode of combustion on an engine with current generation hardware. The engine is a turbocharged V6 DI diesel with (1600 bar) HPCR fuel injection equipment and a cooled external EGR system. The variables examined have been the split and timings of fuel injections and the level of EGR; the responses investigated have been ignition delay, heat release, combustion noise, engine-out emissions and brake specific fuel consumption. Although PCCI-type combustion strategies can be effective in reducing NOx and soot emissions, it proved difficult to achieve this without either a high noise or a fuel economy penalty.
Technical Paper

Characterisation of DISI Emissions and Fuel Economy in Homogeneous and Stratified Charge Modes of Operation

An experimental study of the performance of a reverse tumble, DISI engine is reported. Specific fuel consumption and engine-out emissions have been investigated for both homogeneous and stratified modes of fuel injection. Trends in performance with varying AFR, EGR, spark and injection timings have been explored. It is shown that neural networks can be trained to describe these trends accurately for even the most complex case of stratified charge operation with exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper

DISI Engine Spark and Fuel Injection Timings. Effects, Compromise and Robustness

DISI engine emissions and fuel economy are strongly dependent upon fuel injection and spark timings, particularly when the engine is operating in stratified charge mode. Experimental studies of the effects of injection and spark timings and the interaction between these are described. The sensitivity of HC and NOx emissions to timings during stratified charge operation, the comparison of performance under stratified and homogeneous charge modes of operation and the rationale for mode switch point settings are investigated. The high sensitivity of emissions to injection and spark timing settings gives rise to potential robustness issues. These are described.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Gas/Fuel Ratio on Combustion Stability and Misfire Limits of Spark Ignition Engines

The deterioration of combustion stability as lean operating limits and misfire conditions are approached has been investigated experimentally. The study has been carried out on spark ignition engines with port fuel injection and four-valves-per-cylinder. Test conditions cover fully-warm and cold operation, and ranges of air/fuel ratio, exhaust gas recirculation rates and spark timing. An approximate method of calculating gas/fuel ratio is described. This is used to show that combustion stability, characterised by the coefficient of variation of i.m.e.p., is a function of calculated gas/fuel ratio and spark timing until near to the limit of stability. A rapid deterioration in stability and the onset of weak, partial burning occurs at a gas/fuel ratio between 24:1 and 26:1 under fully-warm operating conditions, and around one gas/fuel ratio lower under cold operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Technical Paper

Audit of Fuel Utilisation During the Warm-Up of SI Engines

Experimental studies of fuel utilisation during the early stages of engine warm-up after cold-starts are reported. The investigation has been carried out on a 1.81, 4 cylinder spark-ignition engine with port electronic fuel injection. The relationship between fuel supplied and fuel accounted for by the analysis of exhaust gas composition shows that a significant mass of fuel supplied is temporarily stored or permanently lost. An interpretation of data is made which allows time-dependent variations of these to be separately resolved and estimates of fuel quantities made. The data covers a range of cold-start conditions down to -5°C at which, on a per cylinder basis, fuel stored peaks typically at around 0.75g and a total of 1g is returned over 100 seconds of engine running. Fuel lost past the piston typically accounts for 2g over 200 to 300 seconds of running.
Technical Paper

Intake Port Fuel Transport and Emissions: The Influence of Injector Type and Fuel Composition

Experimental studies have been carried out on a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection to examine the influence of injector type and to contrast this with the effects of fuel composition. Intake port fuel transport characteristics and engine-out emissions for fully-warm and warm-up engine operating conditions have been examined as indicators of performance. The investigation has encompassed four types of injector and five gasoline blends. Fuel transport has been characterised using the τ and X parameters. The influence of injector type on these is of similar significance as that of changes in gasoline composition between summer and winter grades. The latter will limit the in-service accuracy of open-loop mixture control during transients. Injector type has a small effect on engine-out emissions under fully-warm operating conditions but has a significant influence on emissions during the early stages of warm-up.
Technical Paper

The Use of Vehicle Drive Cycles to Assess Spark Plug Fouling Performance

Spark plug fouling is a common problem when vehicles are repeatedly operated for very short periods, particularly at low temperatures. This paper describes a test procedure which uses a series of short, high-load drive cycles to assess plug fouling under realistic conditions. The engine is force cooled between drive cycles in order to increase test throughput. Spark plug resistance is shown to be a poor indicator of the effect of fouling on engine performance and the rate of misfiring is given as an alternative measure. An automated technique to detect misfires from engine speed data is described. This has been used to investigate the effect of spark plug type, fuelling level and spark timing on fouling. Spark plugs which are designed to run hotter are found to be more resistant to plug fouling. Isolated adjustments to fuelling level and spark timing calibrations within the range providing acceptable performance have a weak effect on susceptibility to plug fouling.