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Journal Article

The Effect of Reducing Compression Ratio on the Work Output and Heat Release Characteristics of a DI Diesel under Cold Start Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1306
An experimental investigation has been carried out to compare the indicated performance and heat release characteristics of a DI diesel engine at compression ratios of 18.4:1 and 15.4:1. The compression ratio was changed by modifying the piston bowl volume; the bore and stroke were unchanged, and the swept volume was nominally 500cc. The engine is a single cylinder variant of modern design which meets Euro 4 emissions requirements. Work output and heat release characteristics for the two compression ratios have been compared at an engine speed of 300 rev/min and test temperatures of 10, -10 and -20°C. A more limited comparison has also been made for higher speeds representative of cold idle at one test temperature (-20°C). The reduction in compression ratio generally produces an increase in peak specific indicated work output at low speeds; this is attributable to a reduction in blowby and heat transfer losses and lower peak rates of heat release increasing cumulative burn.
Journal Article

Investigations of Piston Ring Pack and Skirt Contributions to Motored Engine Friction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1046
An experimental study has been carried out to examine the influence of ring tan load and piston skirt modifications on piston assembly friction under motored engine conditions for initial temperatures of -20, 0 and 30°C and motoring speeds within the range 400 to 2000 rev/min. The study has been carried out using the block, crankshaft and pistons of a 2.4I, 4 cylinder diesel engine with a bore and stroke of 89.9mm and 94.6mm respectively. The pistons examined are typical of current designs for light duty diesels. A range of ring pack and piston skirt modifications have been tested, in each case as part of a complete piston assembly. The first changes produced reductions in fmep of between 5% and 38%. The reduction was due to improved skirt and ring pack designs in equal measure, each giving improvements of up to 20%. From this baseline eliminating the tan load of the piston rings was projected to give a further reduction in fmep of between 10% and 20%.
Technical Paper

Fuel Transport to the Crankcase, Oil Dilution and HC Return with Breather Flow During the Cold Operation of a SI Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1235
Fuel losses to the crankcase, fuel/oil interactions, and fuel return as unburned hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been investigated. Hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been measured during motored and firing engine operation over a range of temperatures. Fuel desorption from the sump oil accounts for a small proportion of this. The major source is hydrocarbons transported past the piston with blowby. After a cold start, around 85% of these are retained in oil films below the ring pack. The recirculation of oil from the films to the sump contributes to bulk oil dilution. This appears to be the prime mechanism by which fuel is lost to oil dilution during cold operation. The mechanism becomes less effective as engine warm-up progresses. At fully-warm oil temperatures (∼100°C), only about 5% are removed from the blowby.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Engine Heat Transfer for Heat Rejection and Warm-Up Modelling

1997-05-19
971851
A correlation for total gas-side heat transfer rate has been derived from the analysis of engine data for measured heat rejection rate, frictional dissipation, and published data on exhaust port heat transfer. The correlation is related to the form developed by Taylor and Toong, and the analysis draws on this. However, cylinder and exhaust port contributions are separated. Two empirical constants are fixed to best match predicted to measured results for heat rejection to coolant and oil cooler under steady-state conditions, and also for exhaust port heat transfer rates. The separated contributions also defined a correlation for exhaust port heat transfer rate. The description of gas-side heat transfer is suited to needs for the analysis of global thermal behaviour of engines.
Technical Paper

Audit of Fuel Utilisation During the Warm-Up of SI Engines

1997-05-01
971656
Experimental studies of fuel utilisation during the early stages of engine warm-up after cold-starts are reported. The investigation has been carried out on a 1.81, 4 cylinder spark-ignition engine with port electronic fuel injection. The relationship between fuel supplied and fuel accounted for by the analysis of exhaust gas composition shows that a significant mass of fuel supplied is temporarily stored or permanently lost. An interpretation of data is made which allows time-dependent variations of these to be separately resolved and estimates of fuel quantities made. The data covers a range of cold-start conditions down to -5°C at which, on a per cylinder basis, fuel stored peaks typically at around 0.75g and a total of 1g is returned over 100 seconds of engine running. Fuel lost past the piston typically accounts for 2g over 200 to 300 seconds of running.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber Walls in Spark Ignition Engines

1995-02-01
950686
The cycle-by-cycle variation of heat transferred per cycle (q) to the combustion chamber surfaces of spark ignition engines has been investigated for quasi-steady and transient conditions produced by throttle movements. The heat transfer calculation is by integration of the instantaneous value over the cycle, using the Woschni correlation for the heat transfer coefficient. By examination of the results obtained, a relatively simple correlation has been identified: This holds both for quasi-steady and transient conditions and is on a per cylinder basis. The analysis has been extended to define a heat flux distribution over the surface of the chamber. This is given by: where F(x/L) is a polynomial function, q″ is the heat transfer per cycle per unit area to head and piston crown surfaces and gives the distribution along the liner
Technical Paper

The Use of Vehicle Drive Cycles to Assess Spark Plug Fouling Performance

1994-02-01
940101
Spark plug fouling is a common problem when vehicles are repeatedly operated for very short periods, particularly at low temperatures. This paper describes a test procedure which uses a series of short, high-load drive cycles to assess plug fouling under realistic conditions. The engine is force cooled between drive cycles in order to increase test throughput. Spark plug resistance is shown to be a poor indicator of the effect of fouling on engine performance and the rate of misfiring is given as an alternative measure. An automated technique to detect misfires from engine speed data is described. This has been used to investigate the effect of spark plug type, fuelling level and spark timing on fouling. Spark plugs which are designed to run hotter are found to be more resistant to plug fouling. Isolated adjustments to fuelling level and spark timing calibrations within the range providing acceptable performance have a weak effect on susceptibility to plug fouling.
Technical Paper

The Determination of Heat Transfer from the Combustion Chambers of SI Engines

1993-04-01
931131
Two methods of determining the rate of heat transfer from the combustion chamber have been investigated. A First Law analysis is shown to be ill-conditioned because of sensitivity to heat release and gas property calculations. An alternative approach equates cycle-averaged chamber heat transfer to the difference between heat rejected to the coolant and gas heat transfer to the exhaust port. This has been examined as a basis for calibrating the Woschni correlation.
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