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Technical Paper

The Effect of Forced Cool Down on Cold Start Test Repeatability

Increasing the number of cold-start engine cycles which could be run in any one day would greatly improve the productivity of an engine test facility. However with the introduction of forced cooling procedures there is the inherent risk that test-to-test repeatability will be affected. Therefore an investigation into the effects caused by forced cooling on fuel consumption and the temperature distribution through the engine and fluids is essential. Testing was completed on a 2.4 litre diesel engine running a cold NEDC. The test facility utilises a basic ventilation system, which draws in external ambient air, which is forced past the engine and then drawn out of the cell. This can be supplemented with the use of a spot cooling fan. The forced cool down resulted in a much quicker cool down which was further reduced with spot cooling, in the region of 25% reduction.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterisation of Heat Transfer in Exhaust Pipe Sections

This paper describes the characterisation of heat transfer in a series of 11 test sections designed to represent a range of configurations seen in production exhaust systems, which is part of a larger activity aimed at the accurate modeling of heat transfer and subsequent catalyst light off in production exhaust systems comprised of similar geometries. These sections include variations in wall thickness, diameter, bend angle and radius. For each section a range of transient and steady state tests were performed on a dynamic test cell using a port injected gasoline engine. In each case a correlation between observed Reynolds number (Re) and Nusselt number (Nu) was developed. A model of the system was implemented in Matlab/Simulink in which each pipe element was split into 25 sub-elements by dividing the pipe into five both axially and radially. The modeling approach was validated using the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Potential of a Controllable Engine Cooling System to Reduce NOx Emissions in Diesel Engines

This paper investigates the potential for reduced NOx emissions from the integration of thermal factors into the Diesel engine calibration process. NOx emissions from Diesel engines have been shown to be sensitive to engine operating temperature, which is directly related to the level of cooling applied to the engine, in addition to the main engine operating parameters such as injection timing and EGR ratio. Experimental engine characterization of the main engine parameters against coolant temperature set point shows that engine cooling settings can extend the feasible lower limits of fuel consumption and emissions output from Diesel engine. With the adoption of an integrated calibration methodology including engine cooling set point, NOx emissions can be improved by up to 30% at crucial high speed/load operating points seen in the NEDC drive cycle with a minor reduction in fuel economy and small increase in CO output.
Technical Paper

Cold Start Emissions Optimisation Using an Expert Knowledge Based Calibration Methodology

As emissions regulations become more stringent, an efficient and effective method of rig-based transient engine calibration becomes increasingly desirable. It is known that approximately 80% of total drive-cycle exhaust emissions can be produced in the initial warm-up phase before catalyst ‘light-off’ is achieved and catalyst conversion efficiency increases. During this period, there is a clear trade-off that can be made in the strategy between the amount of thermal energy that is delivered to the catalyst and the amount of exhaust emissions produced during the time before catalyst ‘light-off’ is achieved. This paper examines whether an automated expert-knowledge based decision-making methodology can be used to find a satisfactory trade-off between these two parameters whilst reducing the iteration time and level of input required from a calibration engineer.
Technical Paper

Investigation of ‘Sweep’ Mapping Approach on Engine Testbed

Steady state mapping is fundamental to optimizing IC engine operation. Engine variables are set, a predefined settling time elapses, and then engine data are logged. This is an accurate but time consuming approach to engine testing. In contrast the sweep method seeks to speed up data capture by continuously moving the engine through its operating envelope without dwelling. This is facilitated by the enhanced capability of modern test rig control systems. The purpose of this work is to compare the accuracy and repeatability of the sweep approach under experimental conditions, with that of steady state testing. Limiting factors for the accuracy of the sweep approach fall into two categories. Firstly on the instrumentation side - transducers have a characteristic settling time. Secondly on the engine side - thermal and mechanical inertias will mean that instantaneous measurements of engine parameters differ from the steady state values.
Technical Paper

Integrated Cooling Systems for Passenger Vehicles

Electric coolant pumps for IC engines are under development by a number of suppliers. They offer packaging and flexibility benefits to vehicle manufacturers. Their full potential will not be realised, however, unless an integrated approach is taken to the entire cooling system. The paper describes such a system comprising an advanced electric pump with the necessary flow controls and a supervisory strategy running on an automotive microprocessor. The hardware and control strategy are described together with the simulation developed to allow its calibration and validation before fitting in a B/C class European passenger car. Simulation results are presented which show the system to be controllable and responsive to deliver optimum fuel consumption, emissions and driver comfort.
Technical Paper

Performance Investigations of a Novel Rolling Traction CVT

The Milner CVT is a patented [1] rolling traction transmission offering advantages of high power density and simplicity of construction and operation. A 90 mm diameter prototype variator is described which was sized for a maximum rated input power of 12 kW. Experimental data are presented demonstrating high efficiency and low shift forces. Resistance to overload torque is shown to be exceptional and preliminary durability trials indicate a highly viable concept for series production. Based upon the measured data, characteristics of larger variators are predicted and prospects for automotive applications discussed.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Behaviour of a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Many Diesel engine development programs concentrate almost exclusively on steady state investigations to benchmark an engines performance. In reality, the inter-action of an engine's sub-systems under transient evaluation is very different from that evident during steady state evaluation. The transient operation of a complete engine system is complex, and collecting test data is very demanding, requiring sophisticated facilities for both control and measurement. This paper highlights the essential characteristics of a Diesel engine when undertaking testbed transient manouevres. Results from simple transient sequences typical of on-road operation are presented. The tests demonstrate how transient behaviour of the engine deviates greatly from the steady state optimum settings used to control the engine.
Technical Paper

Transient Investigation of Two Variable Geometry Turbochargers for Passenger Vehicle Diesel Engines

The use of variable geometry turbocharging (VGT) as an aid to performance enhancement has been the subject of much interest for use in high-speed, light-duty automotive diesel applications in recent times (4). One of the key benefits anticipated is the improved transient response possible with such a device over the conventional fixed geometry turbine with wastegate. The transient responses of two different types of variable geometry turbocharger have been investigated on a dynamic engine test bed. To demonstrate the effect of the turbocharger on the entire system a series of step changes in engine load at constant engine speed were carried out with the turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems under the control of the engine management microprocessor. Results are presented which compare the different performance and emissions characteristics of the devices. Some control issues are discussed with a view to improving the transient response of both types.