Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Morphological Characterisation of Gasoline Soot-in-Oil: Development of Semi-Automated 2D-TEM and Comparison with Novel High-Throughput 3D-TEM

2019-09-09
2019-24-0042
Morphology of soot nanoparticles is characteristically complex and 3-dimensional, and plays a defining role in soot-related phenomena. Morphological characterisation of soot is essential to understand the extent of such effects, including harm to human health, and develop strategies to mitigate them. Use of 2D-TEM for characterisation is associated with numerous and significant sources of error and uncertainty related to a 2D-3D information gap. Volume reconstruction by 3D-TEM avoids many of these sources of error, and has been shown in simulation studies to be highly accurate. However, the technique has traditionally been too slow to permit study of enough individual structures to satisfactorily characterise a bulk soot-sample. Similarly, the prevalence of manual image processing in 2D-TEM studies of soot can limit characterisations to as few as 50 individual particles per sample.
Technical Paper

Inner-Insulated Turbocharger Technology to Reduce Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Modern Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0184
With more focus on real world emissions from light-duty vehicles, the interactions between engine and after-treatment are critical. For modern engines, most emissions are generated during the warm-up phase following a cold start. For Diesel engines this is exaggerated due to colder exhaust temperatures and larger aftertreatment systems. The De-NOx aftertreatment can be particularly problematic. Engine manufacturers are required to take measures to address these temperature issues which often result in higher fuel consumption (retarding combustion, increasing engine load or reducing the Diesel Air-fuel-ratio). In this paper we consider an inner-insulated turbocharger as an alternative, passive technology which aims to reduce the exhaust heat losses between the engine and the aftertreatment. Firstly, the concept and design of the inner-insulated turbocharger is presented.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

2019-01-15
2019-01-0071
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
Journal Article

The Effects of Cylinder Deactivation on the Thermal Behaviour and Performance of a Three Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2160
A physics based, lumped thermal capacity model of a 1litre, 3 cylinder, turbocharged, directly injected spark ignition engine has been developed to investigate the effects of cylinder deactivation on the thermal behaviour and fuel economy of small capacity, 3 cylinder engines. When one is deactivated, the output of the two firing cylinders is increased by 50%. The largest temperature differences resulting from this are between exhaust ports and between the upper parts of liners of the deactivated cylinder and the adjacent firing cylinder. These differences increase with load. The deactivated cylinder liner cools to near-coolant temperature. Temperatures in the lower engine structure show little response to deactivation. Temperature response times following deactivation or reactivation events are similar. Motoring work for the deactivated cylinder is a minor loss; the net benefit of deactivation diminishes with increasing load.
Technical Paper

A Study on Dynamic Torque Cancellation in a Range Extender Unit

2016-04-05
2016-01-1231
A range extended electric vehicle (REEV) has the benefit of zero pipeline emission for most of the daily commute driving using the full electric mode while maintaining the capability for a long-range trip without the requirement of stop-and-charge. This capability is provided by the on-board auxiliary power unit (APU) which is used to maintain the battery state of charge at a minimum limit. Due to the limited APU package size, a small capacity engine with low-cylindercount is normally used which inherently exposes more severe torque pulsation, that arises from a low firing frequency. By using vector control, it is feasible to vary the generator in-cycle torque to counteract the engine torque oscillation dynamically. This allows for a smoother operation of the APU with the possibility of reducing the size of the engine flywheel. In this paper, a series of motor/generator control torque patterns were applied with the aim of cancelling the engine in-cycle torque pulses.
Technical Paper

A Modified Oil Lubrication System with Flow Control to Reduce Crankshaft Bearing Friction in a Litre 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1045
The oil distribution system of an automotive light duty engine typically has an oil pump mechanically driven through the front-endancillaries-drive or directly off the crankshaft. Delivery pressure is regulated by a relief valve to provide an oil gallery pressure of typically 3 to 4 bar absolute at fully-warm engine running conditions. Electrification of the oil pump drive is one way to decouple pump delivery from engine speed, but this does not alter the flow distribution between parts of the engine requiring lubrication. Here, the behaviour and benefits of a system with an electrically driven, fixed displacement pump and a distributor providing control over flow to crankshaft main bearings and big end bearings is examined. The aim has been to demonstrate that by controlling flow to these bearings, without changing flow to other parts of the engine, significant reductions in engine friction can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effects of EGR Supply Configuration on Cylinder-to-Cylinder Dispersion and Engine Performance Using 1D-3D Co-Simulation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0816
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is widely used in IC combustion engines for diluting air intake charge and controlling NOx emission. The rate of EGR required by an engine varies by the speed and load and control of the right amount entering the cylinders is crucial to ensure good engine performance and low NOx emission. However, controlling the amount of EGR entering the intake manifold does not ensure that EGR rate will be evenly distributed among the engine's cylinders. This can many times lead to cylinders operating at very high or low EGR rates which contradictory can deteriorate particulate matter and NOx emission. The present study analyses the cylinder-to-cylinder EGR dispersion of a 4 cylinder 2.2L EUROV Diesel engine and its effects on the combustion stability. A 1D-3D coupling simulation is performed using GT-Power and STAR-CCM+ to analyze the effects of intake manifold geometry and EGR supply configuration on the EGR homogeneity and cylinder-to-cylinder distribution.
Technical Paper

Review of Turbocharger Mapping and 1D Modelling Inaccuracies with Specific Focus on Two-Stag Systems

2015-09-06
2015-24-2523
The adoption of two stage serial turbochargers in combination with internal combustion engines can improve the overall efficiency of powertrain systems. In conjunction with the increase of engine volumetric efficiency, two stage boosting technologies are capable of improving torque and pedal response of small displacement engines. In two stage sequential systems, high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbochargers are packaged in a way that the exhaust gases access the LP turbine after exiting the HP turbine. On the induction side, fresh air is compressed sequentially by LP and HP compressors. The former is able to deliver elevated pressure ratios, but it is not able to highly compressor low flow rates of air. The latter turbo-machine can increase charge pressure at lower mass air flow and be by-passed at high rates of air flow.
Technical Paper

Modelling the Performance of the Torotrak V-Charge Variable Drive Supercharger System on a 1.0L GTDI - Preliminary Simulation Results

2015-09-01
2015-01-1971
A supercharger system which boosts the engine via a direct drive from the engine crankshaft has been identified as a possible solution to improve low-end torque and transient response for a conventional turbocharged SI engine. However, the engine equipped with a fixed-ratio supercharger is not as fuel-efficient especially at high load and low speed due to the fact that a large portion of the intake mass air flow has to recirculate through a bypass valve causing inevitable mechanical and flow losses. In addition, the fixed drive ratio of the supercharger which is mainly determined by the full-load requirements might not be able to provide sufficient over-boost during a transient. The fact that a clutch may be necessary for high engine speed operation on the fixed-ratio supercharger system is another issue from the perspective of cost and NVH performance.
Technical Paper

Explore and Extend the Effectiveness of Turbo-compounding in a 2.0 litres Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1279
After years of study and improvement, turbochargers in passenger cars now generally have very high efficiency. This is advantageous, but on the other hand, due to their high efficiency, only a small portion of the exhaust energy is needed for compressing the intake air, which means further utilization of waste heat is restricted. From this point of view, a turbo-compounding arrangement has significant advantage over a turbocharger in converting exhaust energy as it is immune to the upper power demand limit of the compressor. However, with the power turbine being located in series with the main turbine, power losses are incurred due to the higher back pressure which increases the pumping losses. This paper evaluates the effectiveness that the turbo-compounding arrangement has on a 2.0 litres gasoline engine and seeks to draw a conclusion on whether the produced power is sufficient to offset the increased pumping work.
Technical Paper

Improving Heat Transfer and Reducing Mass in a Gasoline Piston Using Additive Manufacturing

2015-04-14
2015-01-0505
Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing to the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power densities. Thus, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
Journal Article

SuperGen on Ultraboost: Variable-Speed Centrifugal Supercharging as an Enabling Technology for Extreme Engine Downsizing

2015-04-14
2015-01-1282
The paper discusses investigations into improving the full-load and transient performance of the Ultraboost extreme downsizing engine by the application of the SuperGen variable-speed centrifugal supercharger. Since its output stage speed is decoupled from that of the crankshaft, SuperGen is potentially especially attractive in a compound pressure-charging system. Such systems typically comprise a turbocharger, which is used as the main charging device, compounded at lower charge mass flow rates by a supercharger used as a second boosting stage. Because of its variable drive ratio, SuperGen can be blended in and out continuously to provide seamless driveability, as opposed to the alternative of a clutched, single-drive-ratio positive-displacement device. In this respect its operation is very similar to that of an electrically-driven compressor, although it is voltage agnostic and can supply other hybrid functionality, too.
Technical Paper

A New Turboexpansion Concept in a Twin-Charged Engine System

2014-10-13
2014-01-2596
Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Dynamic Performance Prediction by Volterra Series Model

2014-10-13
2014-01-2558
Current turbocharger models are based on characteristic maps derived from experimental measurements taken under steady conditions on dedicated gas stand facility. Under these conditions heat transfer is ignored and consequently the predictive performances of the models are compromised, particularly under the part load and dynamic operating conditions that are representative of real powertrain operations. This paper proposes to apply a dynamic mathematical model that uses a polynomial structure, the Volterra Series, for the modelling of the turbocharger system. The model is calculated directly from measured performance data using an extended least squares regression. In this way, both compressor and turbine are modelled together based on data from dynamic experiments rather than steady flow data from a gas stand. The modelling approach has been applied to dynamic data taken from a physics based model, acting as a virtual test cell.
Technical Paper

Empirical Lumped-mass Approach to Modelling Heat Transfer in Automotive Turbochargers

2014-10-13
2014-01-2559
When evaluating the performance of new boosting hardware, it is a challenge to isolate the heat transfer effects inherent within measured turbine and compressor efficiencies. This work documents the construction of a lumped mass turbocharger model in the MatLab Simulink environment capable of predicting turbine and compressor metal and gas outlet temperatures based on measured or simulated inlet conditions. A production turbocharger from a representative 2.2L common rail diesel engine was instrumented to enable accurate gas and wall temperature measurements to be recorded under a variety of engine operating conditions. Initially steady-state testing was undertaken across the engine speed and load range in order that empirical Reynolds-Nusselt heat transfer relationships could be derived and incorporated into the model. Steady state model predictions were validated against further experimental data.
Technical Paper

Application of Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) Approach for the Modeling of Reacting Biodiesel Fuel Spray using OpenFOAM

2014-10-13
2014-01-2565
Modeling the combustion process of a diesel-biodiesel fuel spray in a 3-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) domain remains challenging and time-consuming despite the recent advancement in computing technologies. Accurate representation of the in-cylinder processes is essential for CFD studies to provide invaluable insights into these events, which are typically limited when using conventional experimental measurement techniques. This is especially true for emerging new fuels such as biodiesels since fundamental understanding of these fuels under combusting environment is still largely unknown. The reported work here is dedicated to evaluating the Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) approach in OpenFOAM® for improved simulation of reacting biodiesel fuel spray. An in-house model for thermo-physical and transport properties is integrated to the code, along with a chemical mechanism comprising 113 species and 399 reactions.
Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

2014-04-01
2014-01-1185
The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
Technical Paper

Predicted Paths of Soot Particles in the Cylinders of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0148
Soot formation and distribution inside the cylinder of a light-duty direct injection diesel engine, have been predicted using Kiva-3v CFD software. Pathlines of soot particles traced from specific in-cylinder locations and crank angle instants have been explored using the results for cylinder charge motion predicted by the Kiva-3v code. Pathlines are determined assuming soot particles are massless and follow charge motion. Coagulation and agglomeration have not been taken into account. High rates of soot formation dominate during and just after the injection. Oxidation becomes dominant after the injection has terminated and throughout the power stroke. Computed soot pathlines show that soot particles formed just below the fuel spray axis during the early injection period are more likely to travel to the cylinder wall boundary layer. Soot particles above the fuel spray have lesser tendency to be conveyed to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Compression Ratio on Indicated Emissions and Fuel Economy Responses to Input Variables for a D.I Diesel Engine Combustion System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0697
The effect of compression ratio on sensitivity to changes in start of injection and air-fuel ratio has been investigated on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine at fixed low and medium speeds and loads. Compression ratio was set to 17.9:1 or 13.7:1 by using pistons with different bowl sizes. Injection timing and air-to-fuel ratio were swept around a nominal map point at which gross IMEP and NOx values were matched for the two compression ratios. It was found that CO, HC and ISFC were higher at low compression ratio, but the soot/NOx trade-off improved and this could be exploited to reduce the fuel economy penalty. Sensitivity to inputs is generally similar, but high compression ratio tended to have steeper response gradients. Reducing compression ratio to 13.7 gave rise to a marked degradation of performance at light load, producing high CO emissions and a fall in combustion efficiency. This could be eased by reducing rail pressure, but the advantage in smoke emission was lost.
Technical Paper

A New Floating-Liner Test Rig Design to Investigate Factors Influencing Piston-Liner Friction

2012-04-16
2012-01-1328
The largest contribution to engine rubbing friction is made by the piston and piston rings running in the cylinder liner. The magnitude and characteristics of the friction behaviour and the influence on these of factors such as surface roughness, piston design and lubricant properties are of keen interest. Investigating presents experimental challenges, including potential problems of uncontrolled build-to-build variability when component changes are made. These are addressed in the design of a new motored piston and floating liner rig. The design constrains transverse movement of a single liner using cantilevered mounts at the top and bottom. The mounts and two high stiffness strain gauged load cells constrain vertical movement. The outputs of the load cells are processed to extract the force contribution associated with friction. The liner, piston and crankshaft parts were taken from a EuroV-compliant, HPCR diesel engine with a swept capacity of 550cc per cylinder.
X