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Journal Article

Analysis of a Diesel Passenger Car Behavior On-Road and over Certification Duty Cycles

Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles.
Technical Paper

Diesel Injector Deposits - An Issue That Has Evolved with Engine Technology

Diesel engines have traditionally been favoured in heavy-duty applications for their fuel economy, robustness, reliability and relative lack of fuel sensitivity. Recently it has seen a growth in its popularity in light duty applications due particularly to its fuel efficiency. However, as the engine technology and particularly the fuel injection equipment has evolved to meet ever stricter emissions legislation the engines have become more sensitive to deposit formation resulting from changes in fuel quality. This paper reviews bouts of concern over diesel fuel injector deposits, possible causes for the phenomenon and test methods designed to screen fuels to eliminate problems.
Technical Paper

The Use of Vehicle Drive Cycles to Assess Spark Plug Fouling Performance

Spark plug fouling is a common problem when vehicles are repeatedly operated for very short periods, particularly at low temperatures. This paper describes a test procedure which uses a series of short, high-load drive cycles to assess plug fouling under realistic conditions. The engine is force cooled between drive cycles in order to increase test throughput. Spark plug resistance is shown to be a poor indicator of the effect of fouling on engine performance and the rate of misfiring is given as an alternative measure. An automated technique to detect misfires from engine speed data is described. This has been used to investigate the effect of spark plug type, fuelling level and spark timing on fouling. Spark plugs which are designed to run hotter are found to be more resistant to plug fouling. Isolated adjustments to fuelling level and spark timing calibrations within the range providing acceptable performance have a weak effect on susceptibility to plug fouling.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Prediction of Power Steering Vane Pump Fluidborne Noise

The design of quiet power steering vane pumps requires accurate experimental and analytical tools to assess fluidborne noise. Measurement of vane pump fluidborne noise-generating potential must minimize hydraulic circuit effects. The difficulties of distinguishing between pump and hydraulic circuit effects is discussed. A technique called the “secondary source” method for measuring positive displacement pump flow ripple is described. The technique allows evaluation of the pump discharge impedance and flow ripple based on the analysis of the wave propagation characteristics in a special test circuit. This test method is used to validate a computer model of the vane pump flow ripple at the rotating group discharge. The model computes the vane chamber pressure histories which are used to obtain net discharge flow ripple. Geometric definition is kept flexible in the model so that compression and leakage can be evaluated for any vane pump design.