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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Geometry-Dependent Spray Hole Individual Mass Flow Rates of Multi-Hole High-Pressure GDI-Injectors Utilizing a Novel Measurement Setup

In order to optimize spray layouts of commonly used high-pressure injectors for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines featuring multi-hole valve seats, a detailed understanding of the cause-effect relation between inner spray hole geometries and inner flow conditions, initializing the process of internal mixture formation, is needed. Therefore, a novel measurement setup, capable of determining spray hole individual mass flow rates, is introduced and discussed. To prove its feasibility, a 2-hole configuration is chosen. The injected fuel quantities are separated mechanically and guided to separate pressure tight measurement chambers. Each measurement chamber allows for time resolved mass flow rate measurements based on the HDA measurement principle (German: “Hydraulisches Druck-Anstiegsverfahren”).
Technical Paper

The Isochoric Engine

For the gasoline engine, the isochoric process is the ideal limit of the ideal processes. During the project, a combustion engine with real isochoric boundary conditions is built. A “resting time” of the piston for several degrees crank angle in the top dead center (TDC) can be realized with a special crank drive. This crank drive consists of two crankshafts with different strokes, which are combined. The two crankshafts rotate with a ratio of two to one in opposite directions. The total stroke corresponds to the amount of the first crankshaft, so it is possible to investigate different strokes of the second crankshaft in the same crankcase. Different “resting times” can be achieved by different strokes of the second crankshaft. A specific combination of both crankshafts make a stroke possible which corresponds to that of a conventional combustion engine.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Influence of Charge Air Temperature Reduction on Engine Efficiency, CCV and NOx-Emissions of a Large Gas Engine Using a SI Burn Rate Model

In order to meet increasingly stringent exhaust emission regulations, new engine concepts need to be developed. Lean combustion systems for stationary running large gas engines can reduce raw NOx-emissions to a very low level and enable the compliance with the exhaust emission standards without using a cost-intensive SCR-aftertreatment system. Experimental investigations in the past have already confirmed that a strong reduction of the charge air temperature even below ambient conditions by using an absorption chiller can significantly reduce NOx emissions. However, test bench operation of large gas engines is costly and time-consuming. To increase the efficiency of the engine development process, the possibility to use 0D/1D engine simulation prior to test bench studies of new concepts is investigated using the example of low temperature charge air cooling. In this context, a reliable prediction of engine efficiency and NOx-emissions is important.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Homogenization Model Considering Direct Fuel Injection and EGR for SI Engines

As a consequence of reduced fuel consumption, direct injection gasoline engines have already prevailed against port fuel injection. However, in-cylinder fuel homogenization strongly depends on charge motion and injection strategies and can be challenging due to the reduced available time for mixture formation. An insufficient homogenization has generally a negative impact on the combustion and therefore also on efficiency and emissions. In order to reach the targets of the intensified CO2 emission reduction, further increase in efficiency of SI engines is essential. In this connection, 0D/1D simulation is a fundamental tool due to its application area in an early stage of development and its relatively low computational costs. Certainly, inhomogeneities are still not considered in quasi dimensional combustion models because the prediction of mixture formation is not included in the state of the art 0D/1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Friction Reduction by Optimization of Local Oil Temperatures

The reduction of engine-out emissions and increase of the total efficiency is a fundamental approach to reduce the fuel consumption and thus emissions of vehicles driven by combustion engines. Conventional passenger cars are operated mainly in lower part loads for most of their lifetime. Under these conditions, oil temperatures are far below the maximum temperature allowed and dominate inside the journal bearings. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate possible potentials of friction reduction by optimizing the combustion engine’s thermal management of the oil circuit. Within the engine investigations, it was shown that especially the friction of the main and connecting rod bearings could be reduced with an increase of the oil supply temperature. Furthermore, on a journal bearing test rig, it was shown that no excessive wear of the bearings is to be expected in case of load increase and simultaneous supply of cooler oil.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Test System for Holistic Vehicle Dynamics Testing

In the automotive industry, there is a continued need to improve the development process and handle the increasing complexity of the overall vehicle system. One major step in this process is a comprehensive and complementary approach to both simulation and testing. Knowledge of the overall dynamic vehicle behavior is becoming increasingly important for the development of new control concepts such as integrated vehicle dynamics control aiming to improve handling quality and ride comfort. However, with current well-established test systems, only separated and isolated aspects of vehicle dynamics can be evaluated. To address these challenges and further merge the link between simulation and testing, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK), University of Stuttgart is introducing a new Handling Roadway (HRW) Test System in cooperation with The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) and MTS Systems Corporation.
Technical Paper

Valve Flow Coefficients under Engine Operation Conditions: Pressure Ratios, Pressure and Temperature Levels

Engine valve flow coefficients are not only used to characterize the performance of valve/port designs, but also for modelling gas exchange in 0D/1D engine simulation. Flow coefficients are usually estimated with small pressure ratios and at ambient air conditions. In contrast, the ranges for pressure ratio, pressure and temperature level during engine operation are much more extensive. In this work the influences of these three parameters on SI engine poppet valve flow coefficients are investigated using 3D CFD and measurements for validation. While former investigations already showed some pressure ratio dependencies by measurement, here the use of 3D CFD allows a more comprehensive analysis and a deeper understanding of the relevant effects. At first, typical ranges for the three mentioned parameters during engine operation are presented.
Journal Article

Use of an Eulerian/Lagrangian Framework to Improve the Air Intake System of an Automobile with Respect to Snow Ingress

A simulation approach to predict the amount of snow which is penetrating into the air filter of the vehicle’s engine is important for the automotive industry. The objective of our work was to predict the snow ingress based on an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software and to compare the simulation results to measurements in order to confirm our simulation approach. An additional objective was to use the simulation approach to improve the air intake system of an automobile. The measurements were performed on two test sites. On the one hand we made measurements on a natural test area in Sweden to reproduce real driving scenarios and thereby confirm our simulation approach. On the other hand the simulation results of the improved air intake system were compared to measurements, which were carried out in a climatic wind tunnel in Stuttgart.
Journal Article

New Motion Cueing Algorithm for Improved Evaluation of Vehicle Dynamics on a Driving Simulator

In recent years, driving simulators have become a valuable tool in the automotive design and testing process. Yet, in the field of vehicle dynamics, most decisions are still based on test drives in real cars. One reason for this situation can be found in the fact that many driving simulators do not allow the driver to evaluate the handling qualities of a simulated vehicle. In a driving simulator, the motion cueing algorithm tries to represent the vehicle motion within the constrained motion envelope of the motion platform. By nature, this process leads to so called false cues where the motion of the platform is not in phase or moving in a different direction with respect to the vehicle motion. In a driving simulator with classical filter-based motion cueing, false cues make it considerably more difficult for the driver to rate vehicle dynamics.
Technical Paper

Presenting a Fourier-Based Air Path Model for Real-Time Capable Engine Simulation Enhanced by a Semi-Physical NO-Emission Model with a High Degree of Predictability

Longitudinal models are used to evaluate different vehicle-engine concepts with respect to driving behavior and emissions. The engine is generally map-based. An explicit calculation of both fluid dynamics inside the engine air path and cylinder combustion is not considered due to long computing times. Particularly for dynamic certification cycles (WLTC, US06 etc.), dynamic engine effects severely influence the quality of results. Hence, an evaluation of transient engine behavior with map-based engine models is restricted to a certain extent. The coupling of detailed 1D-engine models is an alternative, which rapidly increases the model computation time to approximately 300 times higher than that of real time. In many technical areas, the Fourier transformation (FT) method is applied, which makes it possible to represent superimposed oscillations by their sinusoidal harmonic oscillations of different orders.
Journal Article

Modeling and Numerical Calculation of Snow Particles Entering the Air Intake of an Automobile

A physically based model to predict the amount of snow which is entering the air intake of an automobile is extremely important for the automotive industry. It allows to improve the air intake system in the development state so that new vehicles can be developed in a shorter time. Using an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software we set up a model and calculated the snow ingress into an air intake of an automobile. In our numerical investigations we considered different particle shapes when calculating the drag coefficient, different coefficients of restitution and different particle sizes. Furthermore two-way coupling was considered. To obtain key parameters for the simulation, we measured the size of snow particles in the Daimler climatic wind tunnel in Sindelfingen by using a microscope and a measuring device from Malvern. Besides we used mechanical snow traps to determine the snow mass flux in the climatic wind tunnel and on a test area in Sweden.
Technical Paper

Development of an Enhanced Mean-Value-Model for Optimization of Measures of Thermal-Management

In this paper, a simulation approach is introduced which takes into account all relevant heat sources and sinks in the combustion engine and in the engine compartment. With this approach, it is possible to calculate the appearing power flow and enthalpy flow as well as the component temperatures. Therefore, the complex thermodynamic and friction processes in the engine are described as simple as possible; the complete system can still be described reliably within certain limits, and the effects of different thermal optimization measures can be shown. It is an essential point for the modeling that only two integral quantities are necessary (the high pressure efficiency and the high pressure wall heat loss) for the complete combustion model.
Technical Paper

Process Modeling in the Life Cycle Design - Environmental Modeling of Joining Technologies within the Automotive Industry -

For integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the design process it is more and more necessary to generate models of single life cycle steps respectively manufacturing processes. For that reason it is indispensable to develop parametric processes. With such disposed processes the aim could only be to provide a tool where parametric environmental process models are available for a designer. With such a tool and the included models a designer will have the possibility to make an estimation of the probable energy consumption and needed additive materials for the applied manufacturing technology. Likewise if he has from the technical point of view the opportunity, he can shift the applied joining technology in the design phase by changing for instance the design.
Technical Paper

Combination of Hydraulic Multipoint Cushion System and Segment-Elastic Blankholders

The costs for development and production of draw dies for car outer panels are extremely high and should be reduced. Furthermore it is necessary to reduce the time for developing, designing and producing the dies for the production of parts. This paper discusses new press techniques, die designs and an adjustment program for press operators. The trend goes to single action presses with CNC-controlled multipoint cushion systems in the press table and to special designed dies. These systems lead to a more robust and reproducible forming process with improved product quality. This paper deals with: Cushion Systems, New Binder Designs for Draw Dies for Sheet Metal Automotive Parts, New Computer Program to Adjust the Blankholder Forces of Modern Hydraulic Cushion Systems of Single Action Presses and Pressure Measurement for Detecting the Pressure between the Blank and the Binders of Draw Dies for Sheet Metal Automotive Parts.
Technical Paper

Force-Stroke-Curve of Gas Springs

The use of gas springs with a surge tank to generate blank holding forces in drawing tools is increasing. These gas spring systems are characterized by an almost constant behaviour of the spring force over the spring displacement. To prevent an increase of the normal pressure with increasing stroke in a drawing process, it is advantageous to obtain a degressive force-displacement behaviour of the gas springs. For this reason, a gas spring system was developed to realize a decrease of the blank holding forces over the stroke without large additional expenditure. The technical realization takes place in an exact controlling of the upper and lower pressure chamber of the nitrogen cylinder.
Technical Paper

The Quantification of Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) for Planar Time Resolved Measurements of the Soot Volume Fraction in a Combusting Diesel Jet

Quantitative Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) has been applied to investigate the soot formation in a combusting Diesel jet for various conditions. For the quantification of the LII signal the local soot volume fraction of a diffusion flame burner was measured using laser beam extinction. These data were used for the calibration of the LII signal. The investigation of the soot formation in a combusting Diesel jet was performed in a high pressure, high temperature combustion chamber with optical access. A wide range of pressure (up to 10 MPa) and temperature (up to 1,500 K) conditions could be covered using a hydrogen precombustion, which is initiated inside the chamber before fuel injection. The influence of different gas atmospheres have been investigated by varying the gas composition (H2, O2 and N2) inside the chamber.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Research and Draw Die Concepts for Deep Drawing of Tailored Blanks

According to the present state of knowledge, the use of “Tailored Blanks” with different sheet thicknesses and/or grades represents an interesting manufacturing alternative in the design and development of sheet metal parts in the automotive industry. In order to assess the forming behavior, fundamental research was conducted on laser and mash seam welded blanks. Based on this experimental findings, a segmented draw die was designed and built to determine the limits of the metal forming process by deep drawing of car body parts. The results with this draw die showed that a uniform blankholder pressure must be guaranteed during the forming process in the flange region of the part. This necessitated definite slots in the region of the weld line for the mash seam welded blanks. Furthermore, a die concept was presented to enable an equalization of both sheet thickness steps and sheet thickness fluctuations, without requiring replacement of the respective draw die components.
Technical Paper

The Aero-Acoustic Wind Tunnel of Stuttgart University

The noise emission of cruising vehicles essentially consists of tire/road noise, drivetrain noise (engine with intake and exhaust system, transmission and driving axle) and aerodynamic noise due to the flow around bodywork, chassis, wheels and cooling air flow (fan). Engines and drivetrains have become quieter due to many man-years of engineering attention and tire noise has also been reduced - at least the noise reaching the passenger compartment. Consequently, the aerodynamic noise of ground vehicles has become dominant at driving speeds above 100 kph both in interior and exterior noise. In order to determine the contribution of aerodynamic noise to the overall noise, measurements are carried out more and more in specially equipped automotive wind tunnels.
Technical Paper

Quantitative 2D LIF Measurements of Air/Fuel Ratios During the Intake Stroke in a Transparent SI Engine

The fluorescence characteristics of different carbonyl compounds were investigated in a pressurized bomb using an excimer laser (308 nm) for excitation. The partial pressure of the carbonyl compounds and air was varied between 0 - saturation pressure and 0 - 5 bar, respectively. The fluorescence signal of different ketones increased almost linearly with vapour pressure. It was found to be almost independent of air pressure indicating only a weak quenching influence of oxygen. Ethylmethylketone (EMK) has a boiling temperature and vapour pressure similar to gasoline. Therefore, the applicability of EMK for measuring 2-D fuel distributions in a combustion chamber was tested in a transparent SI square piston engine. EMK was injected into the intake manifold by a conventional injector for studying the fuel/air mixing during the intake and compression stroke at 1.000 rpm. From the 2-D fluorescence signals 2-D air/fuel ratios were calculated using calibration data from bomb experiments.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Reference Dynamic Pressure in Open-Jet Automotive Wind Tunnels

In automotive open-jet wind tunnels reference velocity is usually measured in terms of a static pressure difference between two different cross-sectional areas of the tunnel. Most commonly used are two sections within the nozzle (Method 1: ΔP-Nozzle). Sometimes, the reference velocity is deduced from the static pressure difference between settling chamber and plenum (Method 2: ΔP-Plenum). Investigations in three full-scale open-jet automotive wind tunnels have clearly shown that determination of reference dynamic pressure according to ΔP-Plenum is physically incorrect. Basically, all aerodynamic coefficients, including drag coefficient, obtained by this method are too low. For test objects like cars and vans it was found that the error ΔcD depends on the test object's drag blockage in an open-jet wind tunnel.