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Technical Paper

Effect of Flowfield Non-Uniformities on Emissions Predictions in HSDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0821
The role of the fluid motion in a diesel engine on mixing and combustion was investigated using the CFD code Kiva-3v. The study considered pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion that is a hybrid combustion system characterized by early injection timings and high amounts of EGR dilution to delay the start and lower the temperature of combustion. The fuel oxidizer mixture is not homogeneous at the start of combustion and therefore requires further mixing for complete combustion. PCCI combustion systems are characterized by relatively high CO and UHC emissions. This work investigates attenuating CO emissions by enhancing mixing processes through non-uniform flowfield motions. The fluid motion was characterized by the amount of average angular rotation about the cylindrical axis (swirl ratio) and the amount of non-uniform motion imparted by the relative amounts of mass inducted through tangential and helical intake ports in a 0.5L HSDI diesel engine.
Journal Article

Optical Diagnostics and Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Spray Targeting Effects in Late-Injection Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion

2009-11-02
2009-01-2699
The effects of spray targeting on mixing, combustion, and pollutant formation under a low-load, late-injection, low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel operating condition are investigated by optical engine measurements and multi-dimensional modeling. Three common spray-targeting strategies are examined: conventional piston-bowl-wall targeting (152° included angle); narrow-angle floor targeting (124° included angle); and wide-angle piston-bowl-lip targeting (160° included angle). Planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics in a heavy-duty direct-injection optical diesel engine provide two-dimensional images of fuel-vapor, low-temperature ignition (H2CO), high-temperature ignition (OH) and soot-formation species (PAH) to characterize the LTC combustion process.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Intake Condition and Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Fuel Economy and Combustion Noise for Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1123
The goal of this research is to investigate the physical parameters of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine under a light load operating condition (6∼7 bar IMEP). This paper focuses on improving the fuel efficiency of stoichiometric operation, for which a fuel consumption penalty relative to standard diesel combustion was found to be 7% from a previous study. The objective is to keep NOx and soot emissions at reasonable levels such that a 3-way catalyst and DPF can be used in an aftertreatment combination to meet 2010 emissions regulation. The effects of intake conditions and the use of group-hole injector nozzles (GHN) on fuel consumption of stoichiometric diesel operation were investigated. Throttled intake conditions exhibited about a 30% fuel penalty compared to the best fuel economy case of high boost/EGR intake conditions. The higher CO emissions of throttled intake cases lead to the poor fuel economy.
Journal Article

Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry on Mixture Development and Late-Injection Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1330
Low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for diesel engines are of increasing interest because of their potential to significantly reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. LTC with late fuel injection further offers the benefit of combustion phasing control because ignition is closely coupled to the fuel injection event. But with a short ignition-delay, fuel jet mixing processes must be rapid to achieve adequate premixing before ignition. In the current study, mixing and pollutant formation of late-injection LTC are studied in a single-cylinder, direct-injection, optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine using three laser-based imaging diagnostics. Simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and combined formaldehyde (H2CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are compared with vapor-fuel concentration measurements from a non-combusting condition.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Parameters on near Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion Characteristics

2007-04-16
2007-01-0121
Stoichiometric combustion could enable a three-way catalyst to be used for treating NOx emissions of diesel engines, which is one of the most difficult species for diesel engines to meet future emission regulations. Previous study by Lee et al. [1] showed that diesel engines can operate with stoichiometric combustion successfully with only a minor impact on fuel consumption. Low NOx emission levels were another advantage of stoichiometric operation according to that study. In this study, the characteristics of stoichiometric diesel combustion were evaluated experimentally to improve fuel economy as well as exhaust emissions The effects of fuel injection pressure, boost pressure, swirl, intake air temperature, combustion regime (injection timing), and engine load (fuel mass injected) were assessed under stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0912
High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation into the Effects of Spray Targeting, Bowl Geometry and Swirl Ratio for Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0119
A computational study was performed to evaluate the effects of bowl geometry, fuel spray targeting and swirl ratio under highly diluted, low-temperature combustion conditions in a heavy-duty diesel engine. This study is used to examine aspects of low-temperature combustion that are affected by mixing processes and offers insight into the effect these processes have on emissions formation and oxidation. The foundation for this exploratory study stems from a large data set which was generated using a genetic algorithm optimization methodology. The main results suggest that an optimal combination of spray targeting, swirl ratio and bowl geometry exist to simultaneously minimize emissions formation and improve soot and CO oxidation rates. Spray targeting was found to have a significant impact on the emissions and fuel consumption performance, and was furthermore found to be the most influential design parameter explored in this study.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Relationships

2007-04-16
2007-01-0127
Engine development is both time consuming and economically straining. Therefore, efforts are being made to optimize the research and development process for new engine technologies. The ability to apply information gained by studying an engine of one size/application to an engine of a completely different size/application would offer savings in both time and money in engine development. In this work, a computational study of diesel engine size-scaling relationships was performed to explore engine scaling parameters and the fundamental engine operating components that should be included in valid scaling arguments. Two scaling arguments were derived and tested: a simple, equal spray penetration scaling model and an extended, equal lift-off length scaling model. The simple scaling model is based on an equation for the conservation of mass and an equation for spray tip penetration developed by Hiroyasu et al. [1].
Technical Paper

Modeling Early Injection Processes in HSDI Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0056
Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion process in the Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) regime in a light-duty diesel engine. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into an updated KIVA-3V release 2 code to simulate combustion and emission characteristics using reduced chemistry. The test engine used for validation data was a single cylinder version of a production 1.9L four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was 2,000 rev/min and 5 bar BMEP load. Because high EGR levels are required for combustion retardation to make PCI combustion possible, the EGR rate was set at a relatively high level (40%) and injection timing sweeps were considered. Since injection timings were very advanced, impingement of the fuel spray on the piston bowl wall was unavoidable. To model the effects of fuel films on exhaust emissions, a drop and wall interaction model was implemented in the present code.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Characteristic Time (CTC), Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF), and Direct Integration with Detailed Chemistry Combustion Models against Optical Diagnostic Data for Multi-Mode Combustion in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0055
Three different approaches for modeling diesel engine combustion are compared against cylinder pressure, NOx emissions, high-speed soot luminosity imaging, and 2-color thermometry data from a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. A characteristic time combustion (KIVA-CTC) model, a representative interactive flamelet (KIVA-RIF) model, and direct integration using detailed chemistry (KIVA-CHEMKIN) were integrated into the same version of the KIVA-3v computer code. In this way, the computer code provides a common platform for comparing various combustion models. Five different engine operating strategies that are representative of several different combustion regimes were explored in the experiments and model simulations. Two of the strategies produce high-temperature combustion with different ignition delays, while the other three use dilution to achieve low-temperature combustion (LTC), with early, late, or multiple injections.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of a Non-Gradient Step-Controlled Search Algorithm for Engine Combustion Optimization

2006-04-03
2006-01-0239
A new search technique, called Non-Gradient Step-Controlled algorithm (NGSC), is presented. The NGSC was applied independently from pre-selected starting points and as a supplement to a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimize a HSDI diesel engine using split injection strategies. It is shown that the NGSC handles well the challenges of a complex response surface and factor high-dimensionality, which demonstrates its capability as an efficient and accurate tool to seek “local” convergence on complex surfaces. By directly tracking the change of a merit function, the NGSC places no requirement on response surface continuity / differentiability, and hence is more robust than gradient-dependent search techniques. The directional search mechanism takes factor interactions into consideration, and search step size control is adopted to facilitate search efficiency.
Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Combustion in a HSDI Diesel Engine to Allow Use of a Three-way Exhaust Catalyst

2006-04-03
2006-01-1148
The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the characteristics of rich diesel combustion near the stoichiometric operating condition, 2) to explore the possibility of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine in order to allow use of a three-way exhaust after-treatment catalyst, and 3) to achieve practical operation ranges with acceptable fuel economy impacts. Boost pressure, EGR rate, intake air temperature, fuel mass injected, and injection timing variations were investigated to evaluate diesel stoichiometric combustion characteristics in a single-cylinder high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. Stoichiometric operation in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion regime and standard diesel combustion were examined to investigate the characteristics of rich combustion. The results indicate that diesel stoichiometric operation can be achieved with minor fuel economy and soot impact.
Technical Paper

Spray Targeting to Minimize Soot and CO Formation in Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) Combustion with a HSDI Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0918
The effect of spray targeting on exhaust emissions, especially soot and carbon monoxide (CO) formation, were investigated in a single-cylinder, high-speed, direct-injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The spray targeting was examined by sweeping the start-of-injection (SOI) timing with several nozzles which had different spray angles ranging from 50° to 154°. The tests were organized to monitor the emissions in Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion by introducing high levels of EGR (55%) with a relatively low compression ratio (16.0) and an open-crater type piston bowl. The study showed that there were optimum targeting spots on the piston bowl with respect to soot and CO formation, while nitric oxide (NOx) formation was not affected by the targeting. The soot and CO production were minimized when the spray was targeted at the edge of the piston bowl near the squish zone, regardless of the spray angle.
Technical Paper

Application of A Multiple-Step Phenomenological Soot Model to HSDI Diesel Multiple Injection Modeling

2005-04-11
2005-01-0924
Multiple injection strategies have been revealed as an efficient means to reduce diesel engine NOx and soot emissions simultaneously, while maintaining or improving its thermal efficiency. Empirical soot models widely adopted in engine simulations have not been adequately validated to predict soot formation with multiple injections. In this work, a multiple-step phenomenological (MSP) soot model that includes particle inception, surface growth, oxidation, and particle coagulation was revised to better describe the physical processes of soot formation in diesel combustion. It was found that the revised MSP model successfully reproduces measured soot emission dependence on the start-of-injection timing, while the two-step empirical and the original MSP soot models were less accurate. The revised MSP model also predicted reasonable soot and intermediate species spatial profiles within the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Six-Mode Cycle Evaluation of the Effect of EGR and Multiple Injections on Particulate and NOx Emissions from a D.I. Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960316
An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and multiple injections on the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate emissions, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over a wide range of engine operating conditions. The tests were conducted on an instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty Diesel engine. Data was taken at 1600 rev/min, and 75% load, and also at operating conditions taken from a 6-mode simulation of the federal transient test procedure (FTP). The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of as many as four independent injections per combustion event at pressures from 20 to 120MPa.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Modeling of Pilot Injection and Combustion in Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960833
An endoscope-based image acquisition-and-processing camera system was used for diagnostics of pilot injection combustion in a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. A study of the pilot injection or light load is of interest because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in full injection cases. This allows the spray process to be decoupled from the combustion process. The experimental cases were modeled using a version of the KIVA-II code that includes improvements in the turbulence, wall heat transfer, spray, ignition and combustion models. Pilot injections of three different amounts (10, 15 and 20% of the fuel injected at 75% load and 1600 RPM) at different start-of-injection timings were studied. The imaging system included an endoscope, an intensified CID camera, a frame grabber and the control circuitry.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in the Piston Bowl of a DI Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940283
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to make gas velocity and turbulence measurements in a motored diesel engine. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 production engine. One of the exhaust valves and the fuel injector port were used to provide optical access to the combustion chamber so that modifications to the engine geometry were minimal, and the results are representative of the actual engine. Measurements of gas velocity were made in a plane in the piston bowl using TiO2 seed particles. The light sheet necessary for PIV was formed by passing the beam from a Nd:YAG laser through the injector port and reflecting the beam off a conical mirror at the center of the piston. PIV data was difficult to obtain due to significant out-of-plane velocities. However, data was acquired at 25° and 15° before top dead center of compression at 750 rev/min.
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