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Technical Paper

Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In this work, we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a light-duty direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the SNL single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric modeling of the engine, were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Engine Braking: A Perspective in Terms of Brake Power

Engine braking is a supplemental retarding technology in addition to foundational friction brakes in commercial vehicles. This technology is in use in Europe & Americas for several decades now. In engine braking, the engine acts as a compressor, thus producing the required braking power. The braking power is generated by either reducing the volumetric efficiency or increasing the pressure difference across the cylinder. This is usually achieved by means of exhaust valve lift modulation. There are dominantly two types of engine brakes viz. bleeder brake and compression release brake. The present work uses GT-Power® model to study the braking performance of a 4-cylinder, medium duty diesel engine at different engine RPMs and valve lifts. The work brings out a comprehensive understanding of different lift events and their effects on braking performance.
Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Frictional Differences between Rolling and Sliding Interfaces for Passenger Car Switching Roller Finger Followers

The demand for improving fuel economy in passenger cars is continuously increasing. Eliminating energy losses within the engine is one method of achieving fuel economy improvement. Frictional energy losses account for a noticeable portion of the overall efficiency of an engine. Valvetrain friction, specifically at the camshaft interface, is one area where potential for friction reduction is evident. Several factors can impact the friction at the camshaft interface. Some examples include: camshaft lobe profile, rocker arm interface geometry, valve spring properties, material properties, oil temperature, and oil pressure. This paper discusses the results of a series of tests that experimented the changes in friction that take place as these factors are altered. The impact of varying testing conditions such as oil pressure and oil temperature was evaluated throughout the duration of the testing and described herein.
Technical Paper

On Simulating Sloshing in Vehicle Dynamics

We present an approach in which we use simulation to capture the two-way coupling between the dynamics of a vehicle and that of a fluid that sloshes in a tank attached to the vehicle. The simulation is carried out in and builds on support provided by two modules: Chrono::FSI (Fluid-Solid Interaction) and Chrono::Vehicle. The dynamics of the fluid phase is governed by the mass and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations, which are discretized in space via a Lagrangian approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The vehicle dynamics is the solution of a set of differential algebraic equations of motion. All equations are discretized in time via a half-implicit symplectic Euler method. This solution approach is general - it allows for fully three dimensional (3D) motion and nonlinear transients. We demonstrate the solution in conjunction with the simulation of a vehicle model that performs a constant radius turn and double lane change maneuver.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Diesel Engine Vibration Using Cylinder Deactivation for Exhaust Temperature Management and Recipe for Implementation in Commercial Vehicles

Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel emission standards, improve diesel aftertreatment system performance and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Aftertreatment systems, used to remove engine NOx, are temperature dependent. Variable valve actuation in the form of cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been shown to manage exhaust temperatures to the aftertreatment system during low load operation (i.e., under 3-4 bar BMEP). During cylinder deactivation mode, a diesel engine can have higher vibration levels when compared to normal six cylinder operation. The viability of CDA needs to be implemented in a way to manage noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) within acceptable ranges for today’s commercial vehicles and drivelines. A heavy duty diesel engine (inline 6 cylinder) was instrumented to collect vibration data in a dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Low-Height Differential Concepts for EVs

Compared to the internal-combustion-engine (ICE) vehicles on the road today, Electric Vehicles (EV) deliver more torque to vehicle wheels, and require smaller driveline packaging envelopes. Current differentials use asymmetrical ring gears with differential housings that are roughly a third of the tire outside diameter. New differential architecture concepts are shown here to deliver more torque to the wheels, while decreasing the height of the differential as much as fourfold. Most EV’s are driven by one or more torsion motors, delivering torque to the left side and the right side of the EV’s at different speeds during a vehicle turn, or a wheel “spinout.” At low speeds, the EV motors deliver more torque to the wheels than comparably sized ICE vehicles, so EV differentials must be built stronger and stiffer to manage the distribution of available drive torque.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Profile Modulation on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption

Variable valve actuation is a focus to improve fuel efficiency for passenger car engines. Various means to implement early and late intake valve closing (E/LIVC) at lower load operating conditions is investigated. The study uses GT Power to simulate on E/LIVC on a 2.5 L gasoline engine, in-line four cylinder, four valve per cylinder engine to evaluate different ways to achieve Atkinson cycle performance. EIVC and LIVC are proven methods to reduce the compression-to-expansion ratio of the engine at part load and medium load operation. Among the LIVC strategies, two non-traditional intake valve lift profiles are investigated to understand their impact on reduction of fuel consumption at low engine loads. Both the non-traditional lift profiles retain the same maximum lift as a normal intake valve profile (Otto-cycle) unlike a traditional LIVC profile (Atkinson cycle) which needs higher maximum lift.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicles in the Cyberspace: Accelerating Testing via Computer Simulation

We present an approach in which an open-source software infrastructure is used for testing the behavior of autonomous vehicles through computer simulation. This software infrastructure is called CAVE, from Connected Autonomous Vehicle Emulator. As a software platform that allows rapid, low-cost and risk-free testing of novel designs, methods and software components, CAVE accelerates and democratizes research and development activities in the field of autonomous navigation.
Journal Article

Divided Exhaust Period Implementation in a Light-Duty Turbocharged Dual-Fuel RCCI Engine for Improved Fuel Economy and Aftertreatment Thermal Management: A Simulation Study

Although turbocharging can extend the high load limit of low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), the low exhaust enthalpy prevalent in these strategies necessitates the use of high exhaust pressures for improving turbocharger efficiency, causing high pumping losses and poor fuel economy. To mitigate these pumping losses, the divided exhaust period (DEP) concept is proposed. In this concept, the exhaust gas is directed to two separate manifolds: the blowdown manifold which is connected to the turbocharger and the scavenging manifold that bypasses the turbocharger. By separately actuating the exhaust valves using variable valve actuation, the exhaust flow is split between two manifolds, thereby reducing the overall engine backpressure and lowering pumping losses. In this paper, results from zero-dimensional and one-dimensional simulations of a multicylinder RCCI light-duty engine equipped with DEP are presented.
Technical Paper

In-Duct Acoustic Source Data for Roots Blowers

Increased demands for reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are driven by the global warming. To meet these challenges with respect to the passenger car segment the strategy of utilizing IC-engine downsizing has shown to be effective. In order to additionally meet requirements for high power and torque output supercharging is required. This can be realized using e.g. turbo-chargers, roots blowers or a combination of several such devices for the highest specific power segment. Both turbo-chargers and roots blowers can be strong sources of sound depending on the operating conditions and extensive NVH abatements such as resonators and encapsulation might be required to achieve superior vehicle NVH. For an efficient resonator tuning process in-duct acoustic source data is required. No published studies exists that describe how the gas exchange process for roots blowers can be described by acoustic sources in the frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Linear, Non-Linear and Generalized RNG-Based k-epsilon Models for Turbulent Diesel Engine Flows

In this work, linear, non-linear and a generalized renormalization group (RNG) two-equation RANS turbulence models of the k-epsilon form were compared for the prediction of turbulent compressible flows in diesel engines. The object-oriented, multidimensional parallel code FRESCO, developed at the University of Wisconsin, was used to test the alternative models versus the standard k-epsilon model. Test cases featured the academic backward facing step and the impinging gas jet in a quiescent chamber. Diesel engine flows featured high-pressure spray injection in a constant volume vessel from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), as well as intake flows in a high-swirl diesel engine. For the engine intake flows, a model of the Sandia National Laboratories 1.9L light-duty single cylinder optical engine was used.
Technical Paper

Innovative Design - Route to Functionally Graded Structures

Functionally graded materials enable structures to have distribution of different properties (physical, thermal, electrical, mechanical, etc.) across its volume; achievable via material/ design/ process engineering. These functionally graded materials can find an application in systems which demand localized variation or enhancement in properties in different regions of the same component. In this paper, we focus on the potential ways of designing functionally graded polymer composite structure by injection molding process. Advanced mold designs for injection molding process can be effectively used to manufacture the functionally graded structures. Innovative design approach has been explored to control the distribution of the filler content /orientation to impart distinctive properties across the cross section / geometry without affecting the bulk properties.
Technical Paper

Investigating Air Handling Requirements of High Load Low Speed Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion

Past research has shown that reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion offers efficiency and NOx and soot advantages over conventional diesel combustion at mid load conditions. However, at high load and low speed conditions, the chemistry timescale of the fuel shortens and the engine timescale lengthens. This mismatch in timescales makes operation at high load and low speed conditions difficult. High levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to extend the chemistry timescales; however, this comes at the penalty of increased pumping losses. In the present study, targeting the high load - low speed regime, computational optimizations of RCCI combustion were performed at 20 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and 1300 rev/min. The two fuels used for the study were gasoline (low reactivity) and diesel (high reactivity).
Technical Paper

Light Weight Structures - Structural Analysis for Weight Optimization and Joining Techniques of Dissimilar Materials

Light weight structures give significant advantages to products in the Industrial sector. Component weight-saving plays a major role in improving the efficiency and performance of assembled systems. The introduction of lighter materials into products using dissimilar material joining techniques can create more weight savings and leads to lighter structures. Structural optimization is another method to optimize the material layout without affecting overall performance of the product. This paper discusses the methods to create lighter structures by the introduction of lighter materials in structures and structural optimization methods. Lighter materials are introduced in the structure using dissimilar material joining techniques. Joining processes such as thermal shrink-fit and mechanical press-fit are useful for metal to metal components. Similarly, adhesively bonded joints are useful for both metal and non-metal (plastics and composites) components.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Time-to-Failure Prediction Methodology for Glass (Fused Quartz) Material under Cyclic Loading

In amorphous solids such as fused quartz, the failure mechanism under cyclic loading is very different when compared to metals where this failure is attributable to dislocation movement and eventual slip band activity. Standard mechanical fatigue prediction methodologies, S-N or ε-N based, which have been historically developed for metals are rendered inapplicable for this class of material. The fatigue strength of Fused Silica or Fused Quartz (SiO2) material is known to be highly dependent on the stressed area and the surface finish. Stable crack growth in Region II of the V-K curve (Crack growth rate vs Stress intensity factor) is dependent on the competing and transitional effects of temperature and humidity, along that specific section of the stress intensity factor abscissa. Fused glass (under harsh environment conditions) finds usage in Automotive, Marine and Aerospace applications, where stress and load (both static and cyclic) can be severe.
Journal Article

On Practical Implementation of the Ramberg-Osgood Model for FE Simulation

The three parameter Ramberg-Osgood (RO) method finds popular usage for extracting complete stress-strain curve from limited data which is usually available. The currently popular practice of assuming the plasticity to set in only at the Yield point provides computational advantage by separating the complete nonlinear curve, obtained from RO method, into elastic and plastic regions. It is shown, with an example problem, that serious errors are committed by using this method if one compares the obtained results with results of complete stress-strain curve. In the present work we propose a simple Taylor series based approach based on RO method to overcome the above deficiency. This method is found to be computationally efficient. The proposed method is applicable for stress-strain curves of materials for which RO method provides a good approximation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Comparison Studies of Forklift Transmission Architecture

Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
Technical Paper

Development of Net Shape Fiber Reinforced Plenum for Electronic Limited Slip Differential

Global vehicle emissions reduction initiatives have warranted the development and usage of new materials and processes not traditionally used in the automotive industry besides exclusive applications. To support this mandate, vehicle lightweighting via metal replacement and design optimization has come into sharp focus as a doubly rewarding effect; namely, a lighter vehicle system not only requires less road load power for motivation, but also allows for smaller, usually more efficient powertrain options, which tend to be more efficient still. The automotive industry has begun to embrace adapting composite materials that have typically been available only to the upper end of the market and specialty racing applications. The specific component detailed in this paper highlights the challenges and rewards for metal replacement with an injection molded, fiber reinforced plastic for usage in mass produced drivetrain systems, namely the Electronic Limited Slip Differential (eLSD).