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Technical Paper

Optimization Design of FoamIPillar for Head Impact Protection Using Design of Experiment Approach

This paper presents a method to obtain improved foam/pillar structural designs to help enhance occupant interior impact protection. Energy absorbing foams are used in this study with their thickness and crush strength being selected as primary design variables for optimization. The response surface techniques in the design of experiment are used in the optimization process. Head impact analyses are conducted by a CAE model with explicit, nonlinear, dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA3D. A baseline model is developed and verified by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data. Based on this model, the anticipated effects of stiffness of the pillar structure and the trim on the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) results are also assessed. The optimization approach in this study provides a comprehensive consideration of the factors which affect the HIC value.
Technical Paper

Strain Rate Dependent Foam - Constituitive Modeling and Applications

Many foams exhibit significant strain rate dependency in their mechanical responses. To characterize these foams, a strain rate dependent constitutive model is formulated and implemented in an explicit dynamic finite element code developed at FORD. The constitutive model is developed in conjunction with a Lagrangian eight node solid element with twenty four degrees of freedom. The constitutive model has been used to model foams in a number crash analysis problems. Results obtained from the analyses are compared to the experimental data. Evidently, numerical results show excellent agreement with the experimental data.