Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 6 of 6
Technical Paper

Laboratory Assessment of the Oxidation and Wear Performance Capabilities of Low Phosphorus Engine Oils

Meeting upcoming stringent emission standards will require that exhaust gas catalyst systems become active very quickly, function at very high efficiencies and maintain those capabilities at high mileages. This means that contamination of the catalysts by engine oil derived poisons must be minimized. Phosphorus compounds, derived from the zinc dialkyldithio-phosphate (ZDTP) additives that provide antiwear and antioxidant activity, are a principal contaminant that can increase catalyst light off times and reduce catalyst efficiency. Therefore, reducing the concentration of, or eliminating, phosphorus in engine oils is desirable. Doing so, however, requires that oils be reformulated to ensure that wear protection will not be compromised and that oxidation stability will be maintained. To address these concerns, laboratory tests for evaluating oil oxidation and wear performance have been developed and used to evaluate developmental low phosphorus oils.
Technical Paper

Friction Reduction in Lubricated Components Through Engine Oil Formulation

Improvement of engine fuel efficiency through the use of low friction engine oils is a major task in engine lubrication research. This friction reduction can be achieved by improving the rheological characteristics and elastohydrodynamic (EHD) properties of engine oils, and by controlling boundary chemical interactions between oil-based additives and lubricated components in the engine. In order to achieve minimal frictional power loss under all lubrication regimes, engine tribological systems must be designed to effectively use advanced lubricant technology, material and surface modifications. This paper presents results of cooperative research addressing opportunities for minimizing friction through extension of hydrodynamic lubrication regime in lubricated components using various formulation approaches. A set of experimental oils has been evaluated using laboratory test rigs that simulate hydrodynamic, EHD, mixed and boundary lubrication.
Technical Paper

Base Oil Effects on Friction Reducing Capabilities of Molybdenum Dialkyldithiocarbamate Containing Engine Oils

Engine oils formulated using molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate, Mo(dtc)2, additives can provide substantial friction reduction under mixed to boundary lubrication conditions. It has been previously shown that the effectiveness of Mo(dtc)2 is significantly affected by the presence of other additives and by additive interaction and depletion processes occurring during use. In this study, ligand exchange reactions in an additive system containing Mo(dtc)2 and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate, Zn(dtp)2, have been investigated during oxidation in hexadecane and various base oils at 160°C. Samples of different composition obtained from these studies were used in investigations of the effects of original additives and ligand exchange products on friction reducing capability at 45 and 105°C.
Technical Paper

Additive Interactions and Depletion Processes in Fuel Efficient Engine Oils

Fuel efficient engine oils containing molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate, MoDTC, friction modifiers can lose their ability to reduce friction during service prematurely. Depletion processes involving antioxidant reactions and interactions with other additives play important roles in determining the performance of these formulations. This paper describes results from investigations of the antioxidant reactions of MoDTC alone and in combinations with zinc dialkyldithiophosphates and a phenolic antioxidant. The effect of supplementary ashless antioxidant on retention of friction reducing capability is described.
Technical Paper

Effects of Aging on Frictional Properties of Fuel Efficient Engine Oils

Obtaining the maximum benefits from advanced fuel efficient engine oils will require that those oils not only provide fuel efficiency when new but also throughout the service interval for the oil. The effects of laboratory and engine aging on the ability of an oil containing a molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate (MoDTC) additive to provide reduced friction have been investigated. Results of these studies show that the friction reducing capability of this oil, as measured in a laboratory test, was lost prior to depletion of the MoDTC. Interactions between MoDTC and other additives were found to be important with regard to providing friction reduction. Implications for development of advanced oils that will provide lasting fuel efficiency benefits are discussed.
Technical Paper

In-Service Engine Oil Condition Monitoring - Opportunities and Challenges

A vehicle system to monitor the actual condition of engine oil in service would provide the customer with the opportunity to utilize the full useful life of the oil and would minimize problems which can occur when oils remain in the engine too long and are excessively degraded and/or contaminated. This paper describes limitations of some systems which have been proposed, outlines the requirements and potential difficulties related to development of sensors designed to monitor changes in chemical properties of the oil, and describes laboratory and vehicle evaluations of a candidate sensor.