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Technical Paper

Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0167
In this work, we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a light-duty direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the SNL single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric modeling of the engine, were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Resonant Capacitive Coupling WPT-Based Method to Power and Monitor Seat Belt Buckle Switch Status in Removable and Interchangeable Seats

2019-04-02
2019-01-0465
In this study, we present an intelligent and wireless subsystem for powering and communicating with three sets of seat belt buckle sensors that are each installed on removable and interchangeable automobile seating. As automobile intelligence systems advance, a logical step is for the driver’s dashboard to display seat belt buckle indicators for rear seating in addition to the front seating. The problem encountered is that removable and interchangeable automobile seating outfitted with wired power and data links are inherently less reliable than rigidly fixed seating, as there is a risk of damage to the detachable power and data connectors throughout end-user seating removal/re-installation cycles.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0204
Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System (CLASS)

2019-04-02
2019-01-1122
The Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System is a composite rear suspension knuckle/tieblade consisting of UD prepreg (epoxy resin), SMC (vinylester resin) carbon fibre and a steel insert to reduce the weight of the component by 35% and reduce Co2. The compression moulding manufacturing process and CAE optimisation are unique and ground-breaking for this product and are designed to allow high volume manufacture of approx. 30,000 vehicles per year. The manufacturing techniques employed allow for multi-material construction within a five minute cycle time to make the process viable for volume manufacture. The complexities of the design lie in the areas of manufacturing, CAE prediction and highly specialised design methods. It is a well-known fact that the performance of a composite part is primarily determined by the way it is manufactured.
Technical Paper

Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0570
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C.
Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1794
Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.
Technical Paper

On Simulating Sloshing in Vehicle Dynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-1110
We present an approach in which we use simulation to capture the two-way coupling between the dynamics of a vehicle and that of a fluid that sloshes in a tank attached to the vehicle. The simulation is carried out in and builds on support provided by two modules: Chrono::FSI (Fluid-Solid Interaction) and Chrono::Vehicle. The dynamics of the fluid phase is governed by the mass and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations, which are discretized in space via a Lagrangian approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The vehicle dynamics is the solution of a set of differential algebraic equations of motion. All equations are discretized in time via a half-implicit symplectic Euler method. This solution approach is general - it allows for fully three dimensional (3D) motion and nonlinear transients. We demonstrate the solution in conjunction with the simulation of a vehicle model that performs a constant radius turn and double lane change maneuver.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Uncertainty in Predictions of Kinetically Modulated Combustion: Application to HCCI Using a Detailed Transportation Fuel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1251
Simulation of chemical kinetic processes in combustion engine environments has become ubiquitous towards the understanding of combustion phenomenology, the evaluation of controlling parameters, and the design of configurations and/or control strategies. Such calculations are not free from error however, and the interpretation of simulation results must be considered within the context of uncertainties in the chemical kinetic model. Uncertainties arise due to structural issues (e.g., included/missing reaction pathways), as well as inaccurate descriptions of kinetic rate parameters and thermochemistry. In fundamental apparatuses like rapid compression machines and shock tubes, computed constant-volume ignition delay times for simple, single-component fuels can have variations on the order of factors of 2-4.
Technical Paper

Refining Measurement Uncertainties in HCCI/LTGC Engine Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-1248
This study presents estimates for measurement uncertainties for a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine testing facility. A previously presented framework for quantifying those uncertainties developed uncertainty estimates based on the transducers manufacturers’ published tolerances. The present work utilizes the framework with improved uncertainty estimates in order to more accurately represent the actual uncertainties of the data acquired in the HCCI/LTGC laboratory, which ultimately results in a reduction in the uncertainty from 30 to less than 1 kPa during the intake and exhaust strokes. Details of laboratory calibration techniques and commissioning runs are used to constrain the sensitivities of the transducers relative to manufacturer supplied values.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Aerodynamic Benefits of Truck Platooning

2018-04-03
2018-01-0732
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a series of scaled wind tunnel tests to investigate the aerodynamic benefits of heavy vehicle platooning and the availability of cooling air for trailing vehicles on two- and three-vehicle platoons. To measure the aerodynamic drag, scale models are mounted onto a LLNL designed splitter plate by means of a low-friction linear bearing and a load cell located within each model trailer. In addition to drag, pressure measurements are made with a pitot probe positioned at the center of each model radiator grill. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Infrared Thermography (IRT) measurements are used to map the three-dimensional velocity field and flow structures around the vehicles.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicles in the Cyberspace: Accelerating Testing via Computer Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1078
We present an approach in which an open-source software infrastructure is used for testing the behavior of autonomous vehicles through computer simulation. This software infrastructure is called CAVE, from Connected Autonomous Vehicle Emulator. As a software platform that allows rapid, low-cost and risk-free testing of novel designs, methods and software components, CAVE accelerates and democratizes research and development activities in the field of autonomous navigation.
Journal Article

Divided Exhaust Period Implementation in a Light-Duty Turbocharged Dual-Fuel RCCI Engine for Improved Fuel Economy and Aftertreatment Thermal Management: A Simulation Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-0256
Although turbocharging can extend the high load limit of low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), the low exhaust enthalpy prevalent in these strategies necessitates the use of high exhaust pressures for improving turbocharger efficiency, causing high pumping losses and poor fuel economy. To mitigate these pumping losses, the divided exhaust period (DEP) concept is proposed. In this concept, the exhaust gas is directed to two separate manifolds: the blowdown manifold which is connected to the turbocharger and the scavenging manifold that bypasses the turbocharger. By separately actuating the exhaust valves using variable valve actuation, the exhaust flow is split between two manifolds, thereby reducing the overall engine backpressure and lowering pumping losses. In this paper, results from zero-dimensional and one-dimensional simulations of a multicylinder RCCI light-duty engine equipped with DEP are presented.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Linear, Non-Linear and Generalized RNG-Based k-epsilon Models for Turbulent Diesel Engine Flows

2017-03-28
2017-01-0561
In this work, linear, non-linear and a generalized renormalization group (RNG) two-equation RANS turbulence models of the k-epsilon form were compared for the prediction of turbulent compressible flows in diesel engines. The object-oriented, multidimensional parallel code FRESCO, developed at the University of Wisconsin, was used to test the alternative models versus the standard k-epsilon model. Test cases featured the academic backward facing step and the impinging gas jet in a quiescent chamber. Diesel engine flows featured high-pressure spray injection in a constant volume vessel from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), as well as intake flows in a high-swirl diesel engine. For the engine intake flows, a model of the Sandia National Laboratories 1.9L light-duty single cylinder optical engine was used.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Laminar Flame Speed Compared to Engine Tumble Ratio, Ignition Energy, and Injection Strategy on Lean and EGR Dilute Spark Ignition Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0671
Previous studies have shown that fuels with higher laminar flame speed also have increased tolerance to EGR dilution. In this work, the effects of fuel laminar flame speed on both lean and EGR dilute spark ignition combustion stability were examined. Fuels blends of pure components (iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, ethanol, and methanol) were derived at two levels of laminar flame speed. Each fuel blend was tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine under both lean-out and EGR dilution sweeps until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure increased above thresholds of 3% and 5%. The relative importance of fuel laminar flame speed to changes to engine design parameters (spark ignition energy, tumble ratio, and port vs. direct injection) was also assessed.
Journal Article

A Framework for Quantifying Measurement Uncertainties and Uncertainty Propagation in HCCI/LTGC Engine Experiments

2017-03-28
2017-01-0736
In this paper, a framework for estimating experimental measurement uncertainties for a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine testing facility is presented. Detailed uncertainty quantification is first carried out for the measurement of the in-cylinder pressure, whose variations during the cycle provide most of the information for performance evaluation. Standard uncertainties of other measured quantities, such as the engine geometry and speed, the air and fuel flow rate and the intake/exhaust dry molar fractions are also estimated. Propagating those uncertainties using a Monte Carlo simulation and Bayesian inference methods then allows for estimation of uncertainties of the mass-average temperature and composition at IVC and throughout the cycle; and also of the engine performances such as gross Integrated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release and Ringing Intensity.
Journal Article

A Model-Free Stability Control Design Scheme with Active Steering Actuator Sets

2016-04-05
2016-01-1655
This paper presents the application of a proposed fuzzy inference system as part of a stability control design scheme implemented with active steering actuator sets. The fuzzy inference system is used to detect the level of overseer/understeer at the high level and a speed-adaptive activation module determines whether an active front steering, active rear steering, or active 4 wheel steering is suited to improve vehicle handling stability. The resulting model-free system is capable of minimizing the amount of model calibration during the vehicle stability control development process as well as improving vehicle performance and stability over a wide range of vehicle and road conditions. A simulation study will be presented that evaluates the proposed scheme and compares the effectiveness of active front steer (AFS) and active rear steer (ARS) in enhancing the vehicle performance. Both time and frequency domain results are presented.
Journal Article

A Fuzzy Inference System for Understeer/Oversteer Detection Towards Model-Free Stability Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-1630
In this paper, a soft computing approach to a model-free vehicle stability control (VSC) algorithm is presented. The objective is to create a fuzzy inference system (FIS) that is robust enough to operate in a multitude of vehicle conditions (load, tire wear, alignment), and road conditions while at the same time providing optimal vehicle stability by detecting and minimizing loss of traction. In this approach, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is generated using previously collected data to train and optimize the performance of the fuzzy logic VSC algorithm. This paper outlines the FIS detection algorithm and its benefits over a model-based approach. The performance of the FIS-based VSC is evaluated via a co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim model of the vehicle under various road and load conditions. The results showed that the proposed algorithm is capable of accurately indicating unstable vehicle behavior for two different types of vehicles (SUV and Sedan).
Technical Paper

Investigating Air Handling Requirements of High Load Low Speed Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0782
Past research has shown that reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion offers efficiency and NOx and soot advantages over conventional diesel combustion at mid load conditions. However, at high load and low speed conditions, the chemistry timescale of the fuel shortens and the engine timescale lengthens. This mismatch in timescales makes operation at high load and low speed conditions difficult. High levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to extend the chemistry timescales; however, this comes at the penalty of increased pumping losses. In the present study, targeting the high load - low speed regime, computational optimizations of RCCI combustion were performed at 20 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and 1300 rev/min. The two fuels used for the study were gasoline (low reactivity) and diesel (high reactivity).
Technical Paper

Prediction of Automotive Air-Handling System Flow Noise Sound Quality Using Sub-System Measurements

2015-06-15
2015-01-2273
This paper presents the methodology of predicting vehicle level automotive air-handling system air-rush noise sound quality (SQ) using the sub-system level measurement. Measurement setup in both vehicle level and sub-system levels are described. To assess the air-rush noise SQ, both 1/3 octave band sound pressure level (SPL) and overall Zwicker's loudness are used. The “Sound Quality Correlation Functions (SQCF)” between sub-system level and vehicle level are developed for the specified climate control modes and vehicle segment defined by J.D. Power & Associates, while the Zwicker's loudness is calculated using the un-weighted predicted 1/3 octave band SPL. The predicting models are demonstrated in very good agreement with the measured data. The methodology is applied to the development of sub-system SQ requirement for upfront delivery of the optimum design to meet global customer satisfaction
Technical Paper

Study of Stick-Slip Friction between Plunging Driveline

2015-06-15
2015-01-2171
Driveline plunge mechanism dynamics has a significant contribution to the driver's perceivable transient NVH error states and to the transmission shift quality. As it accounts for the pitch or roll movements of the front powerplant and rear drive unit, the plunging joints exhibit resisting force in the fore-aft direction under various driveline torque levels. This paper tackles the difficult task of quantifying the coefficient of static friction and the coefficient of dynamic friction in a simple to use metric as it performs in the vehicle. The comparison of the dynamic friction to the static friction allows for the detection of the occurrence of stick-slip in the slip mechanism; which enables for immediate determination of the performance of the design parameters such as spline geometry, mating parts fit and finish, and lubrication. It also provides a simple format to compare a variety of designs available to the automotive design engineer.
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